India is underdeveloped because of English

In this article, we shall discuss about how the absurd obsession that Indians have for English language, is responsible for the sheer poverty and lack of development in India and also lack of creativity among majority of Indians and how the eradication of India’s Black economy will help in solving this problem.
This article is about Linguistic slavery of India and Black money.
Let’s begin by a conversation between you and me.
You: So what do you mean by linguistic slavery ? I am an Indian and I am free to use any language I desire. I am not a slave.
Me: Are you sure ?? In which language are you forced to do your BTech or MBA ?
You: Of course, English. But mind it. I am not forced to do that. I voluntarily have decided English as medium of instruction for my education because English is the international language and, come on, I need to develop, India needs to develop. We are a developing country and English is a pre-requisite for development.
Me: You are bluntly wrong. Let me first blast off the myth that English is necessary for development. On the contrary, let me state an empirical truth: “English is a big obstacle in the path of India’s development”.
You: Aan haan ?!! You have taken it too far. Still I am eager to know what you have to say.
Me: Sure, let’s have a glance at the languages used by the developed and developing countries around the world for higher education. Below I give details about some developing countries.
Country Language of higher education Colonizers
Angola Portuguese Portugal
Congo French France
Rwanda English and French England and France
Botswana English England
Mozambique Portuguese Portugal
Central African Republic French France
India English England
Pakistan English England
We see that the countries which have been using the language of their colonizers for higher education are still developing. This is just an indicative list. Just do some research on this and you will notice that not even a single country that uses a foreign language for higher education is developed except United States. But for United States, English is not a  foreign language. A majority of Americans are of British or Scotish origin with English already their native language. In the US, after its so-called independence, only some Spaniards and French people needed to learn English. French and Spanish languages are linguistically close to English and learning English is not a tough task for the French and the Spanish, just as learning Gujarati is not a tough task for a Hindi speaker. So English is really not a foreign language for US. Now let’s talk about the developed countries.
Country Language of Higher education
Russia Russian
Germany German
Spain Spanish
Greece Greek
Finland Finnish
Poland Polish
Japan Japanese
Again this is only an indicative list. Those countries which have pride over their native languages and use the native language for higher education are some of the most developed countries in the world. Note that Japan and Germany were completely devastated in the second world war and today they are much more developed than us. One reason for this is that they chose to educate their people in the native tongue! We see that only those countries use English, which were once a colony of England. 
In any case, it is highly obvious and common sense for me that those countries which use native language for education are bound to be more developed than those that use a foreign language. Let me illustrate why this is obvious, through an example.
If a typical German guy (who knows only German) wants to pursue a career in engineering, all he needs to do is start studying the appropriate subjects (books are available in German). If he wants to pursue a career in graphic designing, he needs to learn an image-editing tool, like Gimp (which is available in German language), if he wants to be a business manager, all he needs to do is undergo an MBA program (in the German language).
Now consider a guy who knows only Tamil, just as the German guy only knew German. In fact, all of us only know our native language before entering the anti-Indian education system created by the British. But if this guy wishes to pursue a career in engineering, he would first need to learn a foreign language (because in India, higher education is available only in English), if he wishes to pursue a career in graphic designing, first he needs to learn a foreign language (because Photoshop is available only in English), if he wishes to become a Business manager, first he needs to learn English (because MBA education is available only in English).
In fact, if any Indian wishes to pursue any career in any field other than manual labor and farming, he/she will be required to learn a foreign language! How unfair! More than 80% of Indians do not know English even after 150 years of forceful doses, hence 80% Indians can’t pursue an advanced career! That means there is a huge supply of manual labor available in India (because 80% people do not know English). Through a simple demand-and-supply analysis, we can infer that this huge supply of labor, which outstrips the demand for labor, reduces the price of labor (wages) of 80% of population (laborers and farmers), condemning them to poverty. This poverty then prevents them from accessing good health-care and quality education. This lack of education and money spent on costly medicines, sustains the poverty further and the majority of my countrymen get trapped in this vicious circle of poverty, diseases and ignorance because of English! The poverty then breeds crime and  naxalism..
You: You seem to be making a point. Can you elaborate ?
Me: Of course. Let me show you how the biased attitude of Indians for English is responsible for their poverty. To understand this, you need to first understand a basic fact about an economy. That fact is: You get from the economy, what you give to the economy.
You: How is that ? And how is English related to this ?
Me: Yes. To understand why it is so, let’s first define poverty as the inability of the people to obtain even the threshold amount of goods and services required for a dignified and creative living. Examples of such goods and services are food, cloths, shelter, education, health-care etc. Then you need to understand the concept of circular flow of income. Put simply, the notion of circular flow of income states that Those who produce goods and services in an economy are collectively the same people who consume those goods and services. In other words, the goods and services required to live a prosperous life are not produced by some Allah sitting on 7th sky or some God sitting on 4th sky or some Vishnu sitting in Vaikuntha Loka, but by the same people who need those goods and services.
Circular flow of income, goods and services. Those who wish to consume goods and services are the same people who produce them either as laborers or entrepreneurs! In a nutshell, consumers are themselves the producers!
Let’s now granulate this principle to a micro-level and try applying it to an individual. In an economy, an individual provides goods and services. In exchange, he gets money equal in amount to the price of those goods and services (determined by their supply and demand). The individual then exchanges that money with some other goods and services that he finds necessary for a dignified living. Here, money is only a medium of exchange. The role of money is this whole process is akin to the role of the dummy variable x in the following pseudo-code. In this code, the two variables, a and b exchange their values.
=> a=3; b=5;     //a contains 3, b contains 5
=> int x;             //define a dummy variable x
=> x=a;              //put a‘s value into x
=> a=b;              //put b‘s value into a
=> b=x;              //put x‘s value into b
=> kill x;            //free the memory taken by x
In this code, a and b have exchanged their values and x only acted as a dummy variable and a medium of exchange. Because x has no relevant value, it can be killed at the end of the program. The role of money in an economy is analogous to the role of x in this program. The only difference is that x holds binary values while money holds economic value! Here is a sample economic program.
=> gshah=consultancy; vegetable vendor=vegetables
//gshah(that’s me) can provide consultancy services and vegetable vendor can provide  vegetables
=> print money;          //RBI creates a dummy good called money
=> money=gshah;      //gshah provides consultancy to the economy and gets  money in return
=> gshah=vegetable vendor;       //vegetable vendor provides vegetables to gshah and gets that money in return
=> vegetable vendor=money;      //vegetable vendor provides that money to the economy and gets consultancy services (not necessarily from gshah) to improve his business
=> kill money;            //money came from the economy and went back to the economy
In this economic program, gshah exchanged the consultancy services he can provide, with the vegetables which is a basic necessity for a dignified living. Money came from the economy and went back to the economy. All that effectively happened was the exchange of consultancy services with the vegetables. The greater the value (price) of consultancy services, the greater the money that gshah receives and hence greater will be the amount of vegetables that gshah can acquire in exchange for that money.
But suppose that gshah was not capable enough to provide consultancy and could provide only manual labor (because he does not know English). Since the value (price) of manual labor is much less than that of consultancy, this time gshah receives much less money from the economy in return for manual labor. With this little money, gshah could buy much less vegetables and possibly could not satisfy his hunger with them and hence can’t have a dignified living. That is, gshah is poor.
From this it is clear that, greater the value of goods and services an individual provides to the economy, greater the money he gets in return and greater the amount of goods and services he can buy from that money! This establishes the basic rule of economics that You get from the economy what you give to economy.
Because 80% Indians do not know English, in the current political and economic system, all they can give to the economy is manual labor and farming services. This causes a huge supply of manual labor and farming, compared to their demand. This drastically reduces the price of manual labor and farming and thus 80% Indians get little money from the economy in return for manual labor and farming. With this little money, they can get only limited amount of goods and services necessary for a dignified living, and hence they become poor! From our rule, because 80% Indians give little to the economy, they get little from the economy and hence they are poor!
This analysis is not a mere speculation of mine. Here is some eye-opening data.
As of 2010, agricultural output of India is 16% of its GDP, but agricultural sector employs more than half of the population. That means, more than half of population provides only 16% of national goods and services to the economy and hence consequently (and as our rule also predicts) earn only 16% of national income! In other words, more than half of the people are poor!And let’s not talk of the unorganized labor sector, for that will give an even more gloomy picture. One of the major reasons for India’s poverty is that the British-designed education system has created a barrier which  filters out those who do not know a  foreign language called English, and condemns these filtered out people to low paying  jobs! This also means that more than 80% Indians can’t contribute to innovations in India’s biochemical industry, research and development, opto-electronic industry, semi-conductor industry and metallurgical industry. In fact, 80% Indians can’t contribute to any sector of India’s economy that requires even slightest education! In such a scenario, how will India produce world class entrepreneurs, scientists and Nobel laureates ?? It simply can’t. English is not a helper in development, rather, it is a big obstacle in development and economic prosperity. No wonder, India’s GDP was 27% of world GDP before the British brought English and today it is just around 5% ! That is, India was developed without English and is now developing with English! India has faced enormous amount of economic loss in the 65 years after independence, simply because of English! Interestingly, our spineless, myopic and corrupt leaders who studied economics from Harvard can’t see this simple phenomenon. And a so-called illiterate Baba Ramdev who studied from a gurukul, can see!
In US, everyone produces goods and services and everyone consumes those produced goods and services. In Japan, everyone produces goods and services and everyone consumes those goods and services. The problem with India is that only those who know English produce a majority of goods and services and hence also consume the majority of goods and services. Thus in the current political, economic and education system that is largely borrowed from the British, English language has become a passport to economic prosperity!
India has huge supply of manual labor, because majority do not know English!
You: You make a lot of sense. I agree that English has caused immense amount of economic loss to India, but there is no  solution to this problem. We did not make any discoveries in Science and Mathematics. Hence, Indian languages are not as developed as English. They are not suitable for studying Science. We have to use English. There is no other way.
Me: This is a stupid myth. Indian languages are much more advanced than English. The gem among Indian languages is Sanskrit and it has infinite vocabulary. When English can borrow more than 90% of it’s vocabulary from  other languages (like Latin, Greek, French, Dutch etc), then why can’t modern Indian languages take their vocabulary from Sanskrit ?? Most of them are anyways derived from Sanskrit. In fact, Indian languages (both north and south Indian) have 25% (urdu) to 70% (bengali) vocabulary directly taken from Sanskrit, then why can’t they borrow more words from the endless ocean called Sanskrit ? Lack of vocabulary is not a problem. English (powered  by words from other languages) has less vocabulary than Hindi (powered by words from Sanskrit). Moreover, our ancestors have made great number of discoveries in Mathematics and Science. Algebra, Calculus, Number theory, Trigonometry, Geometry, Astronomy, Linguistics, Phonetics, Economics, Medecine and Surgery have all originated in India! The decimal number system that the world uses today was invented by our ancestors! In fact, whatever mathematics we are taught till 12th standard in English, be it Binomial Theorem or Matrix algebra or Integral calculus, has actually been invented by our ancestors in Sanskrit. 2300 years ago, when विष्णुगुप्त शर्मा(chANakya) was teaching economics to the students at the university of Takshashila, the British did not even exist. Probably, they were uncivilized forest dwellers then. More than 2000 years ago when gArgI was debating with yAjnavalkya on political matters, in the court of king Janaka, the European philosophers thought that women do not have souls and are objects of sex. Moreover, we do not even know what other knowledge our ancestors had, because large portion of their knowledge must have been destroyed when the barbaric invaders burnt the libraries of Nalanda and Takshashila! Just as there can be no scientific and philosophical development in Afghanistan today because of constant political turmoil, there has been little scientific and philosophical development in India in the last 1000 years, because of the political turmoil caused by a series of invaders who were attracted towards India’s vibrant economy for their selfish economic ends. And because the British were the last among that series, they are alteast partly responsible for the lack of scientific development in India and Indian languages.
Many discoveries of quantum mechanics were made in German (remember Aufbau Principle ?), many advances in chemical engineering were made in Russian. Large portion of Science and Maths that is taught to us today in English is actually translated into English and not discovered in English! How stupid of us that we study science and maths by translating them in a foreign language called English but do not attempt to translate these subjects in Indian languages! And in the process we also make the country poor!
I remember, while studying for IIT JEE, one of the books I used was Problems in Physics by Erodov. The original book was in Russian. But we Indians are such big duffers that instead of translating the book from Russian to Tamil, Bangali and Hindi, we translated it from one foreign language (Russian) to another foreign language (English) and then learnt that foreign language to study Physics. How foolish!
Science and Technology has nothing to do with language. Any language is as good as any other. But if that is the case, then why use English – a foreign language ??
You: Ok! You make sense again. But Information Technology which is so much the part of good life today is not possible without English.
Me: Again a myth! Had internet been invented in the Soviet Union, the HTML, the JavaScript and other internet technologies today would have been in Russian! In fact, English is a lousy language from a linguistic perspective, without any proper structure or systematic grammar. A computer will always understand an organized language like Sanskrit, more easily than it understands English. Other languages deserve to be used for computing much more than English does. We should be ashamed that, in spite of Sanskrit being highly superior linguistically, we do not have programming languages in Sanskrit. But then, when 80% people of a country do not even know what programming is, how can we expect that country to create a programming language of its own !!
You: Ok! so English is not required for science and technology, development, computing, internet etc. In fact, according to you, English is not required for anything. Agreed. But, we still can’t afford not using English. Today, it forms a vital interface for India to communicate with rest of the world. We will be isolated from the world if we stop using English. Afterall, English is an international language!
Me: If English is international, so let it be international. Why make it intra-national ?? Why make English compulsory for MBA, BTech, MTech, MBBS etc ?? Those who need to speak to foreigners will take it as an optional subject and those who do not need it will not take it up. Why make it compulsory for even the basic requirements of life ?? When 95% people do not need to speak to foreigners then why are 100% people being forced to learn English ?? In spite of English being international, the Japanese do not educate their kids in English, and they are more developed than us! In France and Japan, for instance, MBA is done in French and Japanese languages, respectively. French and Japanese companies operate in French and Japanese languages, respectively. Not using English is not preventing them from being some of the most competent firms in the world. Language is never a barrier. But if that is the case, then why has English been made compulsory for MBA in India ?
Actually, to be honest with you, English is NOT an international language. That’s be..
You: You have been making sense so far, but I beg to disagree with your last sentence that “English is NOT an international language”.
Me: Let me explain you why I am saying so, then you will beg to agree.
You: Aah han ?!! Go ahead. Open your cards.
Me: I do not think that English is an international language because
1) UN does not define English as an international language. For UN, English, Spanish, Russian, French, Chinese and Arabic are all equal. There is no international government, nor an international Parliament to make international laws and democratically decide which language should be international. The rule in international politics is simple “जिसकी लाठी उसकी भैस ॥” (For the uninitiated, that means One who has power, is influential.) Today the laathi belongs to US and hence the bhains also belongs to US, hence the domination of English. Note that the laathi previously belonged to England, before that Turkey, before that Arabia and before that India. Since laathi will not belong to US in future, the bhains also wont belong to it in future, hence English won’t dominate the world in future (don’t know when but such time definitely will come).
2) a) If we go by number of speakers, Spanish and Chinese beat English. Spanish is more international than English.
b) If we go by number of countries with official status then English tops the list but Arabic, French and Spanish follow behind. French is an official language in 30 countries, English in 58 countries, Spanish in 20 countries, Arabic in 22 countries.
c) If we go by the land area on which a language is spoken, then Russian and English have approximately equal land area, followed by French and Spanish.
Since there is no clear criterion to define what constitutes an international language, calling English an international language is not recommended. Hence we see that UN has adopted 6 languages and not English alone.
3) I think that a language which is being called international should be an official language in atleast 75% of the world nations. English misses this criterion by miles. There are 200 nations in the world and I could call English international when atleast 150 countries in the world had English as an official language, which is not the case.
Arabic became an international language in just 100 years!
4) The answer to the question Which language is international ? is very volatile. A glaring example is that of Arabic. Before 7th century, Arabic was spoken by nomads of the Arabian desert and no where else. In just 100 years from then, it became the language of Science, Art, Literature, Politics, Religion and Philosophy in the nations spanning from modern Portugal to Afghanistan! Similarly, English, which was once spoken only by the barbarians of the island of UK, spread to its current proportions in 400 years. Historians hypothesize that there was a language (which they call Proto Indo European) that was once spoken all over modern Europe, Middle-East and Indian Sub-Continent. That language does not exist today. Probably, this language was none other than our Vedic Sanskrit. The point I am trying to drive home is that within a few centuries (or may be even decades, remember the expansion of Arabic?), English won’t remain the international language even if you consider it to be international today. Then why not prepare our nation (and languages) till then to dominate the world once an appropriate opportunity comes ?
From this it can be concluded that calling English international is not recommended. And even if we do so, there is no point in making English compulsory in education. English can very well be treated as an optional subject taught only to the level that a person may be able to do basic communication in English. But today we treat English with utmost respect and neglect our languages. Treating English with respect is acceptable, but neglecting our own languages can’t be accepted. Today, we bother if we are spelling English words correctly (which anyways have no logic), we bother whether ‘tortoise’ is the correct pronounciation or is it ‘tortis’. We have made such an education system where a person who learns a foreign language becomes an Engineer and a person who learns Hindi or Marathi becomes a chaparaasi. We also bother whether ‘would’ forms the correct usage in a sentence or ‘could’. We are so much particular and choosy about such silly things which were anyways developed from someone’s whims and fancies and have no logical framework behind them. It is this attitude towards English and our languages that annoys me the most. I don’t wish to end English. All I want is an exchange of attitudes that we have for English and Indian Languages.
Not even a single country which was NOT a colony of the British, makes English a pre-requisite for higher education! Indians use English, not because it is helpful in development, but because India was once a colony of British. There is no other reason. But should that be the reason why we promote English at the expense of our languages ??
You: Your concerns and gestures are genuine. I agree now that English should not be a bottleneck for higher education. But how do we achive that ? I mean, India has atleast 22 languages and the education system has to be in one language. For example, there has to be a single medium of instruction at IIT Bombay. For, the students taking up higher education at IIT Bombay come from different states and have different native tongues. We are forced to have a common language there and that language has to be English and not Hindi, as Tamils would oppose education in Hindi. Hindi and Tamil anyways belong to separate language families and are not related, so Hindi does not even have the  familiarity advantage with Tamils.
Me: You are right. But the linguistic diversity of India is actually not a problem. But before understanding why it is not a problem, let me show you some new perspectives about India.
You: Hmmm. I am interested to know. Go on.
The land area of original India is greater than that of European Union!
Me: Do you know why is India called a sub-continent ? That’s because it is really a continent! Let’s talk of land area of India. Rajasthan is of the size of Japan, Kerela is of the size of Israel, Andhra Pradesh is atleast twice the size of Greece, Madhya Pradesh can accommodate atleast 2 Netherlands and 3 Belgiums! In fact, the land-area of Republic of India is 76% of the land area of European Union. And if we talk of the undivided India (अखण्ड भारत) – those regions which were once a part of Vedic culture and had Sanskrit as their lingua franca viz. Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Afghanistan, Maldives and Republic of India – the land area of undivided India is 15% greater than that of European Union! Republic of India is really not a single country but a union of 20 countries! Saying that India is diverse is like saying that European Union is diverse. Of course, a group of 20 countries is bound to be diverse!
You: You are talking interesting facts. But if India is really so huge, why does it appear so small on a map ??
Me: Genuine question. The small appearance of India on a map is actually a geometrical illusion. Because Earth is actually a sphere, but a map is a plane, the regions close to equator appear smaller on a map than they actually are and the regions farther from the equator appear expanded than they actually are! Hence, India looks smaller and Russia and Europe look bigger on a map!
You: Amazing! So how does this answer my concern that We cannot do without English because India is linguistically diverse ?
Me: To understand that, let’s first compare India and Japan. Below I give that comparison.
Japan India
Population Density 337 368
Cultivable land 12% (imports rice and wheat) 57% (grains rot in rains because of lack of infrastructure and corruption)
Above surface natural resources Not many natural resources. Volcanos and earthquakes keep destroying infrastructure. Completely destroyed in world war 2 by atom bombs. No fast flowing rivers or mountains to generate electricity, little flat agricultural land, no forests. Has huge mountains, fast flowing rivers, perrenial rivers, large agricultural land, more than 15% forests, also has rain forests. No volcanos. Small desert only. India has much more above land natural resources than Japan.
Major Industries Electronics, Automobiles, Robotics, semiconductor, optoelectronics, biochemistry No RnD, No electronics industry, small auto mobiles industry, we export our natural resources like coal, iron ore to Japan, they sell back finished products.
Imports/Exports Imports raw materials from other countries like India. Exports electronics and automobiles. Exports raw materials,  software and pharmaceuticals. Imports finished goods of electronics, automobiles etc.
Land Area Slightly greater than Rajasthan 20 times bigger than Japan
Japan which has much less natural resources than India, more catastrophes like volcanos and earthquakes than India and which is 20 times smaller than India has GDP approximately equal to that of India. (And Japan does NOT use English in any field or sector of economy!)
Japan India
GDP $4.395 trillion $4.457 trillion
GDP per capita $33,805 $3,693
It is Rajasthan whose GDP should have been of the size of the GDP of Japan, but we shamefully have the GDP of the whole India of the size of Japan’s GDP. Why is it that the Rajasthan, which is better than Japan in terms of natural resources, cultivable land, natural catastrophes and population density, has 20 times less GDP than Japan ??
You: Why ?!!
Me: You know the answer. It is again the absurd obsession that the Marwaris and Rajasthanis have for English! Let me show this to you by an example. When I was in Vadodara, I went to an ATM center to withdraw money. As I entered the ATM center, I found a man speaking in gujarati-accented Hindi, requesting me to withdraw Rs 2000 for him from his account. The problem was that he could read only Gujarati but the ATM machine could be operated only in English or Hindi. He had to rely on a stranger for the trivial job of withdrawing money, simply because the bank did not provide its services in a language which more than 95% of the people of Gujarat knew. Imagine the amount of battering that the confidence of a person takes, if he has to rely on others even for trivial activities like withdrawing money, opening a bank account, filling the school admission form of his child, creating a word document, reading an address, sending an email, understand what the judges in a TV reality show are saying, understand what their favorite actor just said in the movie, read the name of a shop…… the list is endless. When a person can’t even perform such silly activities which are trivial for one who knows a foreign language called English, won’t he/she develop an inferiority complex ?? Won’t it hurt his/her confidence and self-respect ?? Because of this inferiority complex, 80% Indians do not even try to think out of the box (and we say that Indians are less creative ??), they think that studying Science and Computing is a job much above their capabilities. How can the GDP of Rajasthan be similar to that of Japan when 80% rajasthanis  live under a constant inferiority complex and think that it is an achievement to perform even those tasks which are actually trivial! More than  80% Indians do not realize their full potential simply because of English, drastically reducing the human empowerment of Indians! When someone believes that I cannot do this or this lies beyond my abilities even for trivial jobs, then how can such a person try innovative stuff, take risks and be an entrepreneur ?? No wonder, India produces few entrepreneurs and with less entrepreneurs, there is less economic activity and with less economic activity there is less GDP and more poverty! The moment one believes I cannot accomplish this his capabilities reduce a hundred times and the moment one starts believing that I can easily achieve this, his capabilities increase a hundred times. Majority of Indians have lost confidence and creativity because of English! It is ironic that those who support and nourish this british created anti-indian system and consequently have caused immense damage to the confidence and empowerment of majority of Indians, are the same people who administer the country and make laws in English for the empowerment of Indians! These so-called secular English supporters are even bigger hypocrites than religious bigots.
Now imagine an India where the GDP of Rajasthan is of the size of the GDP of Japan, GDP of Kerela is of the size of Israel’s GDP, the GDP of Assam is of the size of Belgium’s GDP. Such an India would effectively mean that the Rajasthanis need not go to IIT Bombay for basic needs like higher education (because higher education is available in Rajasthan itself in Marwari/Rajasthani, just as it is available in Japan in Japanese), the Biharis need not go to Mumbai for a basic need like employment because their is so much economic activity in Bihar itself that everyone can get a decent job in Bihar and the Punjabis need not go to Delhi for health-care because the health-care services in Punjab are so good. Ideally, when we compare India’s statistics with those of other small countries, we realize that what we call the states in India under a highly powerful central government, are actually countries in their own right, whether you talk in terms of land area, population or culture. Each of these country-states could operate in their native language and Hindi could be used for inter-state communication and in central services. Just imagine clubbing 20 European countries under a powerful central administration that operates in a non-european language. In such a Europe, you will find all the problems that you find in today’s India! The Greeks who had gone to London in search for employment  might possibly be beaten by extremist English groups, just as Biharis are today beaten up in Mumbai by extremist Marathi groups!
You: Ok. My concern that We can’t do away with English because India is linguistically diverse, will be invalid if the GDP of India had been 20 times that of Japan. Though it should have been that way, in reality, it is not the case. I also realize now that we see a group of 20 countries as a single country not because it is a single country but because of its low GDP and a powerful central government. But then what is the solution to this problem of low GDP ?? And if this problem is not solved, then it would be difficult to remove English as a language of higher education.
Me: This problem can be solved. There is no reason why the GDP of India should be so low, when India meets all the necessary conditions for a booming economy. A vibrant economy requires five inputs. Land, labor, capital, technology and raw materials. Our land is as populated as that of Japan (similar population densities), so land is not a problem. We have no scarcity of labor and raw-materials. We foolishly sell our raw-materials to Japanese, American and European firms instead of using those raw materials in generating economic activity among ourselves. We have a great deficit of capital because capital comes from investment by entrepreneurs and government. And we do not have money to invest because our (black) money is being invested by developed countries to generate capital in their own countries. We have outdated technologies because technology comes from research and we are not good at research because majority of Indians live under an inferiority complex and greatly underestimate themselves nor do they have scientific temper because of lack of quality education.
We see that out of the 5 requirements for a vibrant economy, India possess 3 viz. land, labor, raw-materials and does not possess 2 viz. capital and technology. Capital will come from investment and investment will not remain a problem if we recover our black money, which is today fueling illegal activities in India and economic growth abroad, and invest that money into generating capital for India’s economy. Technology won’t remain a problem, if we invest our recovered black money in education and research. And when India will possess all the requirements for a vibrant economy, that day we will have an India with a GDP of 20 times that of Japan! And that day we will also be able to harvest all the advantages that a native language provides! This will also revert the process of extinction of Indian languages that was initiated by the British by eradicating the Indian education system that was created by our rishis and imposing an English-based education system that was designed by a drug-addict!
Moreover, as I showed the last time we met, that the developed countries would go into severest recession ever if we are able to eradicate India’s black economy. They will no longer be in a position to either provide employment to us (in English) nor in a position to provide FDI. When India’s economy becomes 20 times that of Japan, then we will be providing FDI and employment for the collapsing American and European economies and we will provide this employment in Hindi so that Americans need to learn Hindi if they wish to get employed! Ending India’s black economy will not only prevent the extinction of India’s languages, but also revert the roles played by India and the west. Even Africa may become prosperous by taking inspiration from us!
You: What you are saying is really intriguing. You have given me great food for thought.
Me: Yes. I urge you to contemplate on this linguistic and economic issue. But all this change is not possible without a visionary leadership in the government which I am sure does not exist in any established political party. This is only possible if some visionary people like Baba Ramdev form a political party and that party wins a majority in Lok Sabha.
You: Yes, I agree. But I am perplexed. If English has so many disadvantages, then why are common people so much obsessed for it ?
Me: The reason for this is propaganda. Just after independence, there was an opportunity of replacing English with Indian languages. But every political change causes doom for those who were flourishing before that change. And those are the people who do not wish that change should occur. When the British left, they left behind a hybrid class of individuals who were Indians by body but British in ideology and attitude. This English speaking elite was the major beneficiary of the British-made political system. They had a monopoly on all the intellectual sectors of the economy. Those who did not belong to this English-speaking elite were either farmers or laborers. The removal of English would have drastically  increased competition for them in all walks of life which could challenge their elite status! So to retain the British-made system, they started issuing false ideas through media that English is necessary for development, English is linguistically superior, English is the language of Science and technology. Gullible people started believing in this propaganda because they had lost confidence and creativity and original thinking because of 150 years of British rule. Instead of revolting against this anti-indian system they started taking it as a bitter medicine thinking that it is for their benefit.  One of the first persons who encouraged me to learn English was my mother. She was not trying do this as a part of an organized propaganda, but she genuinely believed that English is necessary for development. In fact, this propaganda has now become so much ingrained in a typical Indian’s psyche, that one cannot even differentiate between the original shrewd propagandists (the english-speaking elite left by the British) and their unsuspecting victims (like my mother) !
The condition of most Indians is today similar to the brain-washed terrorists. Just as the terrorists do not see anything unethical in killing strangers for no reason at all, because they have been brainwashed, similarly most Indians can’t see anything awkward in their foolish obsession for English, because they have been brain-washed since childhood by the English speaking elite and their parents (the innocent victims) !
You: Hmm Ok. But if you are so much concerned, you should have written this blog in Hindi  to promote Hindi. Afterall, charity begins at home.
Me: I have not written this blog in Hindi because writing in Hindi on a computer is inconvenient, not because the Hindi script is clumsy, but because the ubiquitous qwerty keyboard was never designed to type in Hindi! We are such big idiots that we have not even developed keyboards and operating systems suitable for our languages. Had I written this article in Hindi, it would have consumed 5 folds more energy and time. Moreover, Hindi looks ugly on a computer. This is not because the Hindi script is ugly – in fact, I find it very beautiful  – but because there is no Hindi font industry. No one develops beautiful looking Hindi fonts because there is no demand for Hindi fonts. That is because, only those who know English use computers, while those who know only Hindi are so poor that they care about their next meal instead of demanding Hindi fonts. In any case, Hindi will not be promoted by my writing this blog in Hindi, just as it is not promoted when the government writes प्रसाधन on a railway station toilet. Writing in Hindi on a blog or on सुलभ शौचालय, thinking that it will promote Hindi is a mere distraction from the real issue. What promotes a language is its use in judicial, economic, political and education systems of a country and not simply writing in that language on a blog or at the entrance of the Chemical engineering department of IIT Bombay.
Baba Ramdev has been touring the country and to the remotest locations since 2010, creating awareness among the poor regarding the causes of their poverty. It is a great achievement that a rishi has successfully made the biggest and once ignored problem of India (Black money), a central issue in Indian politics. Those who want to serve as cheap laborers and cheap researchers for American and European firms would do well to not support Baba Ramdev’s mission, while those who want to hire Americans and Europeans as cheap laborers should support him.
Last year when Baba Ramdev fasted with a demand to establish educational infrastructure for providing higher education in Indian languages, the so-called honest economist who is supposed to be India’s PM was calling Baba Ramdev impractical. By doing that, he actually acted against the interest of the people. Instead of running initiatives to eradicate this destructive obsession among Indians for English, the government seems to be promoting this unnatural obsession by making English compulsory everywhere!
There are numerous serious issues before the country and I am glad that finally a rishi called Baba Ramdev is raising some vital issues and making the people aware. Hope the best for the country. Bye.
Posted in Politics | Tagged , , , , , , | 48 Comments

Temporal order of words in Sanskrit

In the article Similarities between Sanskrit and Programming Languages, we translated the sentence मूर्खः परिहर्तव्यः प्रत्यक्षः द्विपदः पशुः। There we showed that this sentence conveys the existence of a single person who  has 5 properties viz. he is stupid, he must be avoided, he is located in front of the eyes, he has two legs and he is an animal. But we never discussed about which among the 5 properties comes first. In other words, how do we decide which of the following translations is the most accurate ?

  1. A stupid person must be avoided. He is like a two-legged animal in-front of the eyes.
  2. The one who is in front of eyes having two legs is animal, stupid and avoidable.
  3. One having two legs in front of eyes is a stupid animal and should be avoided.

To answer this question and decide whether option 1 or 2 or 3 is the correct translation, we shall first understand the classification of Sanskrit words according to derivability and usage. We give that classification below.

There are 3 types of words in any Sanskrit sentence viz. योग, रूढ and योगरूढ.

योग words

योग words are those that are derivable from more basic entities and can be used to represent any object. For example, समविभक्ताङ्ग = one whose parts are symmetrically distributed. This word is a योग, because it is derivable from 3 more basic entities viz. सम + विभक्त + अङ्ग and it can be applied to any object which has symmetrically distributed parts. In Ramayana, this word is used to describe श्री राम because his body was symmetrical. But this word can also be used to describe a sunflower, because a sunflower’s petals are spread out radially/symmetrically from its center.

Similarly, we have तुल्यप्रियाप्रिय = someone who behaves uniformly in favorable as well as unfavorable situations. This word occurs in Gita and is used by Krishna to describe the qualities of an ideal human being. This is a योग word because it is derivable from 3 more basic units viz. तुल्य + प्रिय + अप्रिय and can be used for any person with that quality.

recipe for mokSa

Krishna explains to arjun that one who becomes joyful in favorable situations and distressed in unfavorable situations does not attain mokSa.

Note that both  समविभक्ताङ्ग and तुल्यप्रियाप्रिय can be splitted into other words and not dhAtus. A word derived this way by compounding 2 or more words (and not dhAtus) is called a समास.

But words can also be derived directly from dhAtus. The general form of a word derived directly from dhAtus is उपसर्ग + धातु + प्रत्यय। For example, a word that is derived directly from the dhAtu भज् is विभक्त. It is derived as follows. वि (उपसर्ग) + भज् (धातु) + क्तवत् (प्रत्यय) are combined. Then some algorithms are applied to this combination of उपसर्ग + धातु + प्रत्यय to generate the word विभक्त. (These algorithms were designed by maharSi pANini and can be found in aStAdhyAyI). Similarly, another word derived directly from dhAtu is  प्रिय.  प्री (धातु) + यत् (प्रत्यय) are combined and then some algorithms are applied to the combination to generate प्रिय. To summarize, योग words fall in 2 categories. (1) Those derived from other words (समास) and (2) those derived from dhAtus (कृदन्त). योग words are infinite in number and we do not require a dictionary for them. They form the bulk of Sanskrit literature.

समासयोग words
समविभक्ताङ्ग = सम + विभक्त + अङ्ग
तुल्यप्रियाप्रिय = तुल्य + प्रिय + अप्रिय
परोत्सवनिजोत्सव = पर + उत्सव + निज + उत्सव = one who considers a happy occasion for others as a happy occasion for himself
सर्वतःपाणिपाद = सर्वतः + पाणि + पाद  = one whose hands and legs emerge from everywhere

कृदन्तयोग words (derived by applying Panini’s algorithms)
विभक्त = वि + भज् + क्तवत्
प्रिय =  प्री + यत्
अतुल्य = न + तुल् + यत्

Note that संधि is NOT a mechanism of forming new words. More on संधि in a later article.

रूढ words

रूढ words are those that are not derivable and represent a fixed object. Examples are given below.

कर्पास = cotton (कपास in hindi)
निम्ब = neem tree (नीम in hindi)
स्याल = wife’s brother (साला in hindi)

These words are not derivable and can only be used to represent fixed objects. They are finite in number and we require a dictionary for them.

 योगरूढ words

panini algorithm

maharSi pANinI has described algorithms that can be applied to dhAtus and other basic units to generate complete Sanskrit. He has written his aStadhyAyi as a sequence of instructions that can be used to form the algorithms. He was the first person to describe grammar in the form of a computer-program. Only that his program was never compiled by a machine. But the program works and has no errors!

योगरूढ words are those that are derivable but are used to represent only a few objects. For example, संसार = something that keeps changing in all possible ways. Though there are many objects to which this word applies, but in Sanskrit literature, this word has always been used to denote the world.

Similarly, वृक्ष = something that is cut down. Though this word can apply to many objects, in Sanskrit literature, this has always been used to represent either a tree or the trunk of a tree. Again, if a  योगरूढ word is derived from dhAtus, then it is called  कृदन्तयोगरूढ word and if it is derived from other words then it is called  समासयोगरूढ word. Below are some examples.

कृदन्तयोगरूढ words (derived by applying Panini’s algorithms)
सागर = स + गॄ +  अ = one which can swallow anything => used to denote a sea or an ocean or a big snake
संसार = सम् + सृ + अ = something that keeps changing in all possible ways => used to denote the world

समासयोगरूढ words
भास्कर = भाः + कर = something that creates light => used to denote the sun or gold
पङ्कज = पङ्क + ज = one which grows in wet mud => used exclusively for lotus

These words, though finite, are lakhs in number and there meaning can be guessed approximately without a dictionary, but a dictionary is necessary to find out the exact meaning.

So how does this knowledge of  योग, रूढ and योगरूढ words help in translating the sentence मूर्खः परिहर्तव्यः प्रत्यक्षः द्विपदः पशुः | ? To understand this, we need to grasp the concept of विशेष्य and विशेषण.

विशेष्य – विशेषण

In a sentence, विशेष्य is any word which denotes an object whose qualities are being described in the sentence. And the words used to describe those qualities are called विशेषण.

For example, consider the sentence भारिणी शिला लुण्ठति | which means A heavy rock rolls down. (भारी शिला लुढ़कती है | in hindi). Here, शिला is the word which denotes an object viz. rock, whose quality viz. heaviness is being described by भारिणी| Hence, शिला is विशेष्य and भारिणी is विशेषण in this sentence. As a general rule of thumb, in any sentence, रूढ and योगरूढ words are विशेष्य and योग words are usually विशेषण. Hence, the knowledge of योग, रूढ and योगरूढ words helps in identifying the  विशेष्य and विशेषण in a sentence. But, why is identifying  विशेष्य and विशेषण important ?

The notion of विशेष्य and विशेषण is important because of two very basic rules of grammar. Below I give those rules.

Rule1: In any sentence, a विशेषण has the same विभक्ति, लिंग and वचन as the विशेष्य. So if विशेष्य belongs to first vibhakti,  स्त्रीलिंग  and एकवचन then the विशेषण  should also belong to first vibhakti,  स्त्रीलिंग  and एकवचन |

Hence, भारी (पुल्लिंग) शिला (स्त्रीलिंग) लुण्ठति | is incorrect, while भारिणी (स्त्रीलिंग) शिला (स्त्रीलिंग) लुण्ठति | is correct. That is because the (विशेषण) भारिणी and (विशेष्य) शिला should have the same विभक्ति, लिंग and वचन |

Rule2: If a विशेषण comes immediately before विशेष्य then it means the विशेष्य already has the quality being described by विशेषण, while if the विशेष्य comes immediately before विशेषण  then it means that the sentence is informing the reader that the quality described by the विशेषण is there in the विशेष्य.

Example of this rule is give below.
सुन्दरः बालः। means A cute boy (exists) while बालः सुन्दरः | means that The boy is cute.
भारिणी शिला | means A heavy rock (exists) while  शिला भारिणी | means that The rock is heavy.

Summary of the rules

  1. In a sentence, रूढ and योगरूढ words are विशेष्य and योग words are usually विशेषण.
  2. In a sentence, a विशेषण has the same विभक्ति, लिंग and वचन as the विशेष्य.
  3. If a विशेषण comes immediately before विशेष्य then it means the विशेष्य already has the quality being described by विशेषण, while if the विशेष्य comes immediately before विशेषण  then it means that the sentence is informing the reader that the quality described by the विशेषण is there in the विशेष्य.

Finally, let’s translate मूर्खः परिहर्तव्यः प्रत्यक्षः द्विपदः पशुः | in a step-by-step manner.
1) Identify the  योग, रूढ and योगरूढ words.
2)  मूर्ख is a रूढ word because it has no derivation and has a fixed meaning.
3)  पशु is a योगरूढ word because it has a derivation, but is exclusively used to denote an animal. पशु = पश् + उ = one which is tethered.
4) परिहर्तव्य, प्रत्यक्ष and द्विपद are योग words because they have a derivation and can be used to denote unknown new objects.
परिहर्तव्य = परि + हृ + तव्यत्
प्रत्यक्ष = प्रति + अक्ष
द्विपद = द्वि + पद
5) From the rule we stated above, मूर्ख and पशु are विशेष्य because they are रूढ and योगरूढ, while  परिहर्तव्य, प्रत्यक्ष and द्विपद are विशेषण because they are योग words.
6) Because मूर्ख and पशु are विशेष्य, the sentence is describing the qualities of  मूर्ख and पशु.
7) Because परिहर्तव्य, प्रत्यक्ष and द्विपद are विशेषण, we know that they are being used to describe the qualities of मूर्ख and पशु.
8) It should be understood from the context and sequence of words in the sentence that परिहर्तव्य is denoting the quality of मूर्ख while प्रत्यक्ष and द्विपद are denoting the qualities of पशु.
9) Hence the sentence can be broken down into two parts viz.  मूर्खः परिहर्तव्यः and प्रत्यक्षः द्विपदः पशुः|
10) Each part contains one विशेष्य.

मूर्खः परिहर्तव्यः = A stupid person must be avoided.
प्रत्यक्षः द्विपदः पशुः = A two-legged animal in front of the eyes (exists).

Since मूर्ख and पशु have the same vibhakti, they denote the same object. Hence the sentence translates to A stupid person must be avoided. He is like a two-legged animal in-front of the eyes. Hence, option 1 above is the correct translation.

In fact, a sentence typically contains one or more विशेष्य. Each such  विशेष्य has one or more विशेषणs describing the qualities of the respective विशेष्य. An easy way of translating a sentence is to split it into groups of विशेष्य and विशेषण, with each group containing one विशेष्य. In the above example, the groups were मूर्खः परिहर्तव्यः and प्रत्यक्षः द्विपदः पशुः |

Note that to split the sentence into groups, we have relied on guessing the plausible meaning. This may not always be clear though. So to eliminate any potential confusion, the sentence मूर्खः परिहर्तव्यः प्रत्यक्षः द्विपदः पशुः। can also be written as

  • मूर्खः परिहर्तव्यः। सः प्रत्यक्षः द्विपदः पशुः।or as
  • यः मूर्खः सः परिहर्तव्यः सः प्रत्यक्षः द्विपदः पशुः।

However, in चाणक्यनीति, आचार्य चाणक्य prefers मूर्खः परिहर्तव्यः प्रत्यक्षः द्विपदः पशुः over the other 2 versions.

shiva worship

Each bael leaf (बिल्व) is divided into three leaflets.

ExerciseTranslate the following sentence. Identify the विशेष्य and विशेषण in it.
त्रिदलं त्रिगुणाकारं त्रिनेत्रं त्रिधायुतं त्रिजन्मपापसङ्हारं एकबिल्वं शिवार्पणम्।

That’s it for now. Bye.

Posted in Sanskrit | Tagged , , , , | 17 Comments

Our black money is America’s white money

After having seen the relationship between in Black money and crime in the last article, we shall now try to understacnd in lay man’s terms how the Indian Black economy is related to the economies of US and Europe. The repercussions of eradicating Indian black economy are enormous not only on the crime prevalent in the nation but also on the economies of US and Europe. Eradicating the Indian Black economy may eventually lead to a complete collapse of American and European economies. And the consequences of this collapse will not be restricted to only economic sphere, but will pervade linguistic, social, political and intellectual aspects of people’s lives through out the world.

Moving from black to white requires shrewd strategy – be it chess or the global economy.

As usual we shall begin with our friendly conversation.

You: So what’s the deal ? How is Indian black economy related to the economies of the Europe and US ?

Me: Before answering that question, let’s discuss first how is black money actually stored.

You: Umm, hmm..

Me: Suppose that Kalmadi bought 5 centralized air-conditioning systems for the CommonWealth Games at a price of Rs 1 crore each, while the air-conditioning systems cost only Rs 10 lakh in the market. That means the government is paying Rs 90 lakhs extra on each AC. For the 5 Air-conditioners, the government has been fooled into paying Rs 450 lakh more than what is required. Also, suppose that the AC vendor and Kalmadi have colluded to share the profits equally. As per the collusion deal, Rs 225 lakh go into filling the pockets of Kalmadi and the remaining Rs 225 lakh fill the pockets of the AC vendor. The steps in this process are as follows.

  1. Kalmadi authorizes the payment of Rs 5 crore for the 5 ACs.
  2. The government, which is organizing the common-wealth games, receives 5 ACs from the vendor and transfers Rs 5 crore from the government’s bank accounts to the vendor’s bank accounts. This Rs 5 crore is white money as it is a bank account transfer and is traceable. This transaction is also reflected in the country’s (white) GDP.
  3. Once the vendor received Rs 5 crore in his bank account, he sends a briefcase full of Rs 1000 notes to Kalmadi with total amount of Rs 225 lakhs i.e. Rs 2.25 crores.
  4. The money which was paid by the tax-payers for proudly organizing the CommonWealth Games that symbolize India’s slavery, has safely landed in the pockets of a politician (Kalmadi) and a capitalist (the AC vendor).

That we are such big fools that we proudly organize the commonwealth games and grandly acknowledge that England’s queen once looted us and made us poor, is a different topic. Here we shall not digress into that. Here, let’s talk only of what Kalmadi does with the Rs 2.25 crore he received.

You: He will definitely not put them in a bank. So what does he do ?

Me: Because the money is in the form of Rs 1000 notes, he can safely store it in his house in a  small vault. And because he belongs to the ruling party, he can be sure that there will not be a CBI raid on his house. In fact, whenever the CBI or Income Tax department raid someone’s house and recover crores of ill-gotten wealth, the wealth is invariably in the form of high denomination notes. But there..

You: Hmm, as I contemplate more and more, I realize more and more the advantages of banning high denomination notes. It was my mistake to not support Baba Ramdev while he fasted last year with this demand. In fact, I used to mock at him for this demand. My bad!

Me: That’s fine. Let’s discuss further, what Kalmadi might do with the illegally earned money.

You: Simple, he will store the money in his house and spend it gradually, to satisfy his desires for sense pleasures. You explained last time we met that these desires for sense pleasures is called काम in Sanskrit. I remember.

Me: Think again about what he will do with the money. The overall loss to the government exchequer from the CommonWealth Scam was not 450 lakhs but 76,000 crore. The example we discussed was only for explanation. The amount of money swindled away in national level scams is huge, in fact, so huge that the politicians, the bureaucrats and the capitalists involved, can’t possibly store the black wealth in their homes even if the loot is in the form of Rs 1000 notes. For example, how can someone store Rs 2000 crores in his house, even with the help of the notes of Rs 500 and Rs 1000 ?!!

You: So, if not in their homes, then where do they store it ? Wait a minute! I know where. They store it in Swiss banks to conceal the ill-gotton wealth from the Indian Income Tax department.

Me: Yes, you are right. But, do you know, why only swiss banks ? Why not store the loot in, say, Bangladeshi banks ??

You: Lolz, a Bangladeshi Bank!! he he he !!

Me: Grrr. Don’t laugh. It is  a genuine question. You have no right to laugh if you can’t answer it.

You: Umm…..ummm…ummm. Ok, don’t know! Tell.

UBS is a Swiss bank accused of storing huge amount of Indian black money. And did you know that the government of India has allowed UBS to run its subsidiary in the country, making it very easy now for any one to pass their illegally earned money to Switzerland!

Me: Because Switzerland is a Tax Haven and Bangladesh is not. Actually, the corrupt elite ruling our country  and economy, stores the money not only in the Swiss banks but  in any country which is a tax haven. This is how Investopedia defines a Tax Haven.

A Tax haven is a country that offers foreign individuals and businesses little or no tax liability in a politically and economically stable environment. Tax havens also provide little or no financial information to foreign tax authorities. Individuals and businesses that do not reside a tax haven can take advantage of these countries’ tax regimes to avoid paying taxes in their home countries. Tax havens do not require that an individual reside in or a business operate out of that country in order to benefit from its tax policies.

That means, if Switzerland is a Tax Haven, then Kalmadi can easily deposit his loot in a Swiss bank and the Tax laws of Switzerland are such that they make it difficult for the Indian authorities to extract the information about the Swiss bank accounts of Indian nationals. In a nutshell, tax havens are the place the doctor ordered to store the loot.

As you might have realized, Switzerland in not the only tax haven in the world. Though there is no objective criterion to determine which country is a tax haven and which is not, but most economists consider the countries of Europe and US to be tax havens.

You: I always used to wonder why the Swiss banks are so cool to talk about and so popular for storing Black money. And now it turns out that they are not the only ones.  But now you have put me in a quandary. The last time we met, you explained that banning high denomination notes will almost eliminate the Indian Black economy. I am wondering how will the money stored in foreign banks get added to government exchequer by banning high denomination notes ? And if the money is not added to the government exchequer, then it is still black because the government does not know about it.

Me: Good question. The corrupt people store the Black money earned from illegal activities at two places.

  1. In their own houses or at some other clandestine location inside India. This money is in the form of Rs 500 and Rs 1000 notes.
  2. In the foreign bank accounts in Tax Havens outside India.

That means the money supply of the Indian Black economy is divided into two compartments. The black money that lies physically inside India and the black money that lies physically outside India.

Banning high denomination notes will not get back the money swindled away to foreign banks. All it will do is convert the black money stored in India into white by adding it to the government exchequer and preventing future loot thus putting a break on increasing the size of Indian Black economy. But the money that has already been swindled away to foreign banks will have to be recovered by methods other than banning high denomination notes.

Assume that the total amount of money in India’s Black economy is, say, Rs 100. This is obviously only for the purpose of  explanation. Out of this Rs 100, if Rs 30 is inside India and Rs 70 outside India, then banning high denomination notes will add only Rs 30 to the government exchequer. The remaining Rs 70 will not be affected.

You: So what are those methods for getting back the remaining Rs 70 ?

Me: Well, I am not very sure about that. Baba Ramdev suggests some methods but I do not have much knowledge about them, so not sure about their effectiveness. But let’s understand how is all this related to the economies of Europe and US. For discussion purposes, let’s take the example of US.

You: Ok. Go on…

Me: So what do you think happens to that Rs 70 ? Does it stay idle there in foreign banks ?

You: Hmm. Definitely not. The banks will loan that money to their customers.

Me: Absolutely! And who are the customers ? The customers are the US government and American entrepreneurs! That money which belongs to India is loaned out by American banks to US government to fund its military and scientific research. The research ultimately is utilized in increasing the military power of US. The US government invests that money which belongs to India, to build Universities and educate its people and inculcate a scientific and entrepreneurial temper in them. The American entrepreneurs use that money to invest and open up new businesses, thus decreasing unemployment in US. With high employment, rises the average income of Americans which in turn reduces the poverty in US. The US government uses that money to build water and sanitation infrastructure to provide pure water to every house and provide high quality public health care. In fact…

You: Wait! You are taking it too far. What you are effectively saying is that US is rich because of our money ??

Me: Well! Not exactly. Let’s not talk about US alone, rather let’s see the big picture. What I am trying to say is that the so-called developed countries have become developed by using the wealth of the so-called developing countries. So the countries of North America and Europe have developed on the wealth of the countries of Asia and Africa. The problem of Black money is not a copyright of India alone. It is a problem of all the developing countries.

You: What you are telling may be true. But do you have evidences to lend more credibility to this ??

This is how black money is generated.

Me: Sure. First notice that the size of the Black economy of a country depends on the level of corruption prevalent in that country. Greater the corruption, greater the size of Black economy. The source of black money is corruption and its beneficiaries are corrupt people, criminals and terrorists. In the example of Kalmadi that we just discussed, Kalmadi had effectively added Rs 225 lakhs to India’s black money supply by indulging in corruption. Now I will lend credibility to the assertion that The developed countries have become developed by using the wealth of the developing countries.

For this we will compare 4 statistical parameters for different countries. Those statistical parameters are Literacy Rate (as a measure of education standards), Life-expectancy, Infant Mortality Rate (as measures of health-care standards) and Corruption Perception Index (as a measure of corruption level). Here is a webpage that allows one to moniter all the 4 parameters for every country. Just go through it and convince yourself that the countries of North America and Europe have high literacy rates, high life-expectancy, low infant mortality rates and high corruption perception index, while the countries of Africa and Asia have low literacy rates, low life-expectancy, high infant mortality rates and low corruption perception index. (This is not a universal law but only an empirical observation that is valid for most countries.)

Order of magnitude of corruption among world countries. Dark Blue (Finland) < Blue (Australia) < Turquoise (US) < Yellow (France) < Orange (Poland) < Pink (Saudi Arabia) < Red (India) < Dark Red (Pakistan) < Maroon (Myannmar).

You: Hmmm! Let me see. (Takes some time to examine the data.) Yes, that is not completely true but true for most countries. The exceptions are Russia, Iran, Saudi Arabia and a few others.

Me: Yes. Note that the exceptions you have shown are all oil-producing countries. This suggests that in spite of prevalent corruption, people have access to education and health care because of high incomes generated from the oil industry.

You: Oh! Did not realize that. Nice observation. Your assertion that education and health-care standards of a nation are related to corruption makes more sense now.

Me: Yes! And now that you have observed this trend, what does it mean ? It means that the countries of North America and Europe have good educational infrastructure (because of high literacy rates), good health care (because of high life-expectancy and low infant mortality rates)  and low corruption (because of high corruption perception index). On the other hand, the countries of Asia and Africa (minus the oil producing cuontries) have bad educational infrastructure, bad health-care services and high corruption. This observation is also consistent with common sense. Obviously, greater the corruption in a country is, lesser will be the quality of education and health-care in that country. That is because providing good education and health-care requires investment either by the entrepreneurs or the government or both. And the investment requires money. If corruption is high in a country, the money in that country will be utilized in fueling illegal activities and fulfilling the desires for sense pleasures (काम) of a select few at the expense of public investment.

You: Agreed. But that does not prove your assertion that the developed countries have developed on the wealth of developing countries.

Me: I know. Here is the missing link. This page provides the list of countries by their external debt. Arrange the table in descending order of external debt per capita and you will observe a pattern.

You: Ok. (Takes time to examine the table.)..

Me: So what do you observe ? (Still taking time)…

You: Yes, the developed countries have much much more external debt per capita than the developing countries. What does that mean ?? And before that, what exactly is  external debt ?

Me: Yes! Most investments require taking loans and loans need to be repaid as debt. If you take a loan from a creditor, you owe a debt to the creditor. Debt = Principle + Interest. External Debt of a country is that debt which the people and the government of that country owe to foreigners. Since US has a huge external debt, that means the entrepreneurs and the government of the US owe huge debt to foreigners. In fact, all the developed countries owe huge debt to the foreigners while the developing countries owe very little to the foreigners. We also know that corruption is intense in developing countries while it is minute in developed countries.

Couple the following facts together.
(1) Developing countries have intense corruption, hence a huge amount of their money is swindled away to tax havens.
(2) Developed countries, which are tax havens, have high external debt.
(3) Developed Countries have little corruption, so the size of their black economy is small and hence little of their money is swindled away to other countries.

This suggests that the corruption in developing countries has generated huge amount of black money which is swindled away to the developed countries because they are Tax Havens! And this swindled black money appears as huge external debt of developed countries! This phenomenon is also responsible for the fact that the developing countries are still developing and have bad education and health care standards and low quality technology while the developed countries are already developed and have high education and health care standards and advanced technology. High external debt of developed countries means that developed countries have taken large loans from the developing countries while low external debt of  developing countries means that developing countries have taken only some loans from the developed countries. Overall, developed countries owe money to developing countries. But why would the developing countries give loans to developed countries when the developing countries are in dire need of loans to invest in education and health in their own country ? Why will someone give loan to others when he himself requires money ??

You: I think I got the answer! The common people of the developing countries do not want to loan their wealth to foreigners but the corrupt politicians, corrupt bureaucrats, and greedy capitalists have looted common people with the help of high denomination notes and then stored this  wealth in foreign banks to save their asses from the income tax department. And these foreign banks loaned the money. The money which should have been used for investment in developing countries was put into foreign banks by the corrupt people. This caused a severe shortage of money in the developing countries making them poor and underdeveloped because of lack of investment. Right ??

Me: Absolutely! So the loans which the developed countries have taken from developing countries do not appear on official accounts of developing countries because those loans were given out of untraceable (black) money, while the loans that the developing countries have taken from developed countries appear on official accounts of IMF and other international economic organizations because that is white money!

You: So, how will ending Indian Black economy put breaks on American and European economies ?

These people are starving because…

….such people have looted their wealth….

….and given it to them. Interestingly, some do not have cloths to wear while others don’t wish to wear.

Me: Suppose the Indian government is  able to catch hold of all the Indians who have stored black money in foreign accounts and get access to their accounts, then it can withdraw all this money into government exchequer. This would suddenly cause  a severe shortage of funds in those tax havens/developed countries where Indians have stored their black money. That’s because according to the data provided by the Swiss banks, India has more black money than rest of the world combined. Due to this shortage of funds in the developed countries, there will be a sharp rise in interest rates, in turn, preventing the debtors from borrowing more money to repay their existing debts, causing their credit risk to increase. The debtors are not only unable to repay there existing debts but the increased interest rates will ensure that the debt rises rapidly in future. This will prompt potential creditors to not loan their savings to these countries since they defaulted on their existing debts. And with no funds at the disposal of entrepreneurs and the government in these tax haven countries, all the developmental projects will come to a halt. Also, other Asian and African countries may get inspired by India’s example to take back their black money from US and Europe, leading to a comprehensive shortage of loans in these so-called advanced economies. Since loans are the lubricant of economic investments, the advanced economies of US and Europe will suddenly run short of investment to sustain economic growth and their GDPs will decline rapidly. The companies whose investment projects had been half way through when they halted, would go bankrupt because they had already invested their loans in the projects that yielded no returns simply because the projects remained incomplete. Such companies would liquidate and go bankrupt seriously raising unemployment and poverty in these developed countries to the levels of medieval Europe!

You: Makes sense. What you are telling looks plausible. Mann, you are a genius!

Baba Ramdev has been strongly raising this issue since 2009. He is also suggesting many solutions to solve this problem. Unfortunately, the politicians and the media seem to have vested interests in India’s black economy. So they tried ignoring him first. When that did not work out, they started maligning him since 2011.

Me: No! Not me. Baba Ramdev is a genius. He has been shouting all this at the top of his voice since atleast 2009. The media and politicians have ignored him till 4th June 2011, when ultimately he built so much pressure in Ramlila maidan that they could no longer ignore him. But now the media and politicians have changed their tactics. Instead of completely ignoring him, they now project him in bad light trying to defame him.

You: Do you mean that there is a nexus between media and politicians against Baba Ramdev ?

Me: I do not know. But one thing is very clear. Both the politicians and the media do not wish Baba Ramdev to succeed, hence the politicians call him an RSS agent or thug while the media tries to project him as a greedy businessman trying to fool gullible people in the name of religion. While it is understandable why the politicians try to defame him, it goes beyond my brain to understand why the media also tries to defame him. Probably, the media houses which are nothing but profit-minded businesses stand to lose something if India’s black economy is eradicated. I am confident that the media houses earn a substantial part of their income through paid news industry which runs on black money. If Baba Ramdev succeeded in banning high denomination notes, that could considerably reduce the incomes of the media companies. Moreover, if Baba Ramdev succeeds, that would give a fatal blow to the capitalists of US and Europe who are today the most affluent people in the world. Eradicating Black economy will kill their major source of funds. Hence, it would not be naive to assume that the MNCs would try their best to ensure that Baba Ramdev does not succeed and the media might only be acting as a tool in the hands of the MNCs.

You: Hmmm. By the way, I have a doubt. Are the Americans not aware of their huge external debt and are they not taking any steps to solve this problem ?

Me: Well, the Americans are very much aware of this weakness of theirs and the huge external debt is a strong political issue in American politics. In fact, one of the motivations for the ongoing Occupy protests in America is the inherent instability in the debt-based capitalist model of development which has lead to the huge debts of capitalist nations ! Baba Ramdev has been explaining the problem of huge American external debt from an Indian perspective. From our perspective, America’s external debt is our black money. Here is an animation that explains the problem of huge external debt from an American perspective and shows how the Americans see this problem.

In any case, ending India’s black economy will have  huge impact on social, linguistic, political and intellectual aspects of people’s lives throughout the world. I need to go now, but I will explain in detail the next time we meet about the all-pervasive repercussions of the end of India’s black economy. Bye.

You: Wait. Before going, answer this question. The root cause of this problem seems to be that there is heavy corruption in developing countries while little corruption in developed countries. Why is it like that. I mean, why should corruption be high in one country and less in others ??

Me: Well, that again requires a lot of explaining. I will explain that the next time we meet. Till then you contemplate on this question. Bye for now.

You: Thanks yaar. You are very insightful. Byeee.

PS: Though I used the words corrupt politicians, corrupt bureaucrats, and greedy capitalists, I do not mean that all the politicians, bureaucrats and capitalists are  like that.

Posted in Economics, Politics, Ramdev | Tagged , , , | 8 Comments

How black money is responsible for terrorism and crime

These animals were killed because they could be sold for cash. The money obtained by this sale is Black money.

Moving towards a currency-free economy!

In this article, we shall see what Black money is and how eradicating Black economy will almost eliminate terrorism, naxalism, high level corruption, trading of votes, MPs and MLAs during elections, human trafficking (and hence forceful prostitution), illegal mining, extortion (kidnapping and blackmailing), drug trafficking and poaching (thus promoting wildlife conservation). Uprooting Indian Black economy will also have destabilizing effect on the major European and American economies and hence help in ending the hegemony of the west over world politics and economics, shifting the global power balance in favor of India. Uprooting the Black economy is a shortcut to not only a near crime-free society but also economic prosperity. How ?? Let’s see.

Let’s understand Black money through a discussion between you and me.

You: You are telling that eradicating black money would create a crime-free society ?? You seem to be living in utopia. Wake up!  You want me to believe you ??

Me: Yes!

You: And why should I believe this unfounded claim ?

Me: Ok, I guess, before we proceed, you will need some explaining. Let’s first understand what Black money exactly is. And even before that, what money exactly is.

You: Aaa han. Tell.

Me: Money is anything that can be used to make economic transactions on-demand. On-demand means that the object being called money must be available at the instant a person wishes to make an economic transaction. And the..

You: Wait! What do you mean by an economic transaction ?

Me: Any exchange of tangible goods or services is called an economic transaction. At the heart of an economic transaction lies the exchange of a good (like vegetables) or service (like internet service) for another good that is available on-demand (like currency notes or a bank cheque or gold coins). This latter good is called Money! A terrorist buying arms with cash or a cook buying vegetables with cash or a household availing internet service with a check are all examples of economic transactions.

You: Money is a good ??

Me: Yes! Of course. One of the goods in a non-barter economic transaction is always money. But in a barter economic transaction, none of the goods being exchanged is money. The hallmark of a good that may be called money is that the society has universally accepted that the good being called money can be exchanged for any other good. For example, today you may exchange currency notes for a TV set or a transportation service. But today, you can exchange wheat for neither a TV set nor a transportation service. Hence, currency note is money but wheat is not. Note, though, that any good can be used as money. From wheat, cows, wine, slaves to silver, gold and all the crazy objects you can think of have been used as money somewhere at sometime in history. The use of paper money is a very recent phenomenon. Historically, paper money was introduced by early banks to stealthily loot common people. Slowly, the kings took over the  sole authority to print paper money from banks when they realized how paper money can be employed to loot their subjects without the subjects even being aware of the loot, thus preventing the subjects from revolting! But let’s not digress by discussing that invisible loot. Here, let’s discuss only those aspects of paper money that enable us in grasping the notion of Black money.

You: Hmm, sounds interesting. Go on.

Me: To comprehend what Black money exactly is, one first needs to recognize that there are two-kinds of money today.

1) Traceable money (cheques or demand drafts drawn on various kinds of on-demand financial instruments)
2) Untraceable money (Currency notes and coins)

Traceable money is one that allows us to trace the economic transactions accomplished by it. For example, all the economic transactions I made from my bank deposit account, either through internet or cheque or demand draft, are recorded in the bank pass book and bank’s databases. The Income Tax department can access the list of my economic transactions from the bank records to accurately calculate Income tax payable by me or CBI may access the list of my economic transactions if it suspects that I am the elusive fraudster frustrating its nerve. Above all, the fact that I have made a traceable economic transaction garuntees that I have submitted proofs of my address and my other details while creating the bank account. Thus, law enforcing bodies will have easy time catching hold of me, if I ever commit a crime.

But those economic transactions that I make using paper money remain known only to me and the person I am transacting with! Most ac..

You: So you mean…

Me: Wait, let me complete. Most activities, whether legal or illegal, involve economic transactions. From buying arms to buying vegetables, from availing internet service to availing fetus’ sex determination service, all involve economic transactions. Just ponder over what does not involve economic transaction and you will be left with very few answers. So, money is required for most activities. While legal activities can be carried out using either traceable money or untraceable money, illegal/criminal activities can be carried out exclusively using untraceable money, else the criminals will be caught within no time.

We find Daud Ibrahim extorting ransom from his victims not through check but only through cash. Fees paid to a doctor performing illegal fetus sex determination is in cash not in demand draft, a terrorist comes from pakistan with a bag full of fake currency notes not with a bank account, a pimp lures poor and starving parents of a girl for prostitution not through a pay order but through cash. I can go on and on with more such examples, but..

You: Hmm. Makes sense. So currency is the root of all evil! And eliminating currency will eliminate all evil!

Me: No! The root of all evil are काम, क्रोध, लोभ, मोह, अहङ्कार and मत्सर्य and eliminating currency will not completely eliminate all evil. Evil can be eliminated only when काम, क्रोध, लोभ, मोह, अहङ्कार and मत्सर्य are eliminated from people’s minds. Currency may not be the root of all evil, but it definitely is the lubricant of all evil. Illegal activities can be performed even without currency, but eliminating currency will effectively push all illegal activities into primitive barter transaction which is a highly inefficient way of exchanging goods and services.

You: Hmm. But where is Black money in all this ??

Me: The untraceable money that is used to accomplish untraceable economic transactions is Black money. So the statement that currency is the lubricant of all evil can be replaced by Black money is the lubricant of all evil. But there is more to this concept of Black money. Any nation has two types of GDPs representing two types of economies. They..

You: Do not assume I know everything. What is this GDP ?

Me: Ok! All the activities in a nation are carried out through economic transactions. The greater the number of economic transactions happening in a nation per year, the greater is the size of the economy of that nation. GDP is a  cumulative measure of the number and size of all the economic transactions taking place in an economy per year. GDP divided by the population gives a rough measure of average income in a nation and hence GDP is also a rough measure of poverty.

So coming back to Black money. There are two types of economic transactions. Traceable and untraceable. The official GDP of India that the finance ministry measures, represents only traceable economic transactions. Whenever you use currency to buy something that costs Rs X, that X amount of money does not register anywhere and the government does not know of it. Hence, that X does not get counted while calculating the national GDP. Had you made that transaction using a check, the national GDP as measured by the Government would increase by ‘X’.

There are two types of economies in any nation. The white economy and black economy. The sizes of these two types of economies are measurable using white GDP and black GDP, respectively.

White GDP = Sum of all the traceable economic transactions => Can be calculated accurately because its constituent transactions are traceable
Black GDP = Sum of all the untraceable economic transactions => Can only be estimated theoretically because its constituent transactions are untraceable

Using Sanskrit terminology, the same thing can be paraphrased as

Black GDP =  measure of अधार्मिक activities

So, Black GDP of a nation is effectively a measure of crime, corruption, loot and terrorism prevalent in a nation.

In ancient times, killing evil people was a way to establish धर्म. But in today’s world, eradicating Black economy is the way to establish धर्म. If someone is able to eradicate Black economy, he is effectively fulfilling the pledge of establishing धर्म that Krishna takes before the battle millenia ago.

यदा यदा हि धर्मस्य ग्लानिर्भवति भारत। अभ्युत्थानमधर्मस्य तदात्मानं सृजाम्यहम्॥
परित्राणाय साधूनां विनाशाय च दुष्कृताम्। धर्मसंस्थापनार्थाय सम्भवामि युगे युगे॥

You: Awesome! But after all this talk, how can someone eradicate Black Economy ?

If Krishna existed today, the first thing he would try to do is eradicate Black economy!

Me: Easiest way of eradicating Black economy is to eradicate untraceable money. That means eradicating currency. A currency-free economy will effectively be a 100% white economy with little or no black component. That means a currency-free economy is also a crime-free economy because currency is the lubricant of all evil! Eradicating currency will effectively push all the अधार्मिक activities into the primitive and highly inefficient barter transactions.

Previously, a pimp used to stealthily sell little girls to brothels for cash. But now, to do that he would have to create a bank account and thus register himself with the income tax department!

You: What if the pimp starts using gold instead of money ??

Me: To do that, the pimp will have buy gold from somewhere and will have to create a bank account for buying that gold. All in all, any criminal or terrorist will be forced to make a monetary transaction at some point. And at that point, he is caught.

You: Seems a good idea. But, how will we create a currency-free economy ?

Me: Creating a currency-free economy means replacing the paper money with some other form of money that is as convenient (for small transactions) as paper money but is traceable at the same time. The form of money has kept on changing with society. When the society was nomadic, cattle was used as money. When the society got based on agriculture, grains were used as money. When metallurgical skills got developed, gold/silver money came in vogue. When the printing press was invented, paper became the de facto money. Today, with the advent of IT, digital money will be the norm of the future. And the biggest advantage of digital money is that it is traceable. But the corrupt people who are today flourishing on paper money would definitely resist this change. Nonetheless, change is going to happen. Today we have a great chance of shifting to digital money,  esp. in the wake of the economic revolution that Baba Ramdev is talking of and working for. When our economy will be completely based on digital money, that day we have successfully created a currency-free economy and hence a crime-free nation.

You: But creating a currency free economy would not be that easy. It seems next to impossible.

Me: Yes! the idea of a currency-free economy is difficult to achieve because no one has tried it before. But then every new task is difficult. That should not deter one from attempting it. Creating a currency-free economy will require lot of research and pilot experimentation. It is achievable only in the long run. But in the short run, crime and terrorism can be drastically reduced by banning currency notes of Rs 500 and Rs 1000!

You: Now that you have explained the notion of Black money, I see merit in banning the use of Rs 500 and Rs 1000 notes. But is it feasible ??

Me: Yes! Of course. Even today, making transactions of more than Rs 20,000 in cash is illegal. So if someone is really following laws, he would not need the notes of Rs 100, 500 and 1000. In fact, by printing these notes, the government is indirectly giving opportunity to people to break the law (and indulge in corruption by making untraceable transactions).

The ArjunSen Gupta Report released in 2009 found that 77% of Indians live on less than Rs 20 per day. And this 77% people are the real aam aadmi. In such a nation, what is the necessity of notes of Rs 100, 500 and 1000 where 77% people do not even use a note of Rs 50 ?? The point is that common people do not require high denomination notes. Payments upto Rs 20,000 can be easily made using notes of Rs50. The high denomination notes are only required for making the payments of the order of lakhs and crores convenient. Such huge transactions are made not by aam aadmi (and aurat) but by the political and social elite like A Raja or Shahid Balwa. But if they are making any such genuine transaction, then why can’t they make it through their bank account ?? Of course, the answer is, if they used their bank accounts, how could they possibly create such a big 2G scam and profit elite capitalists at the expense of aam aadmi ??

You: What you are telling makes sense. But, don’t you think paying Rs15,000 with Rs 50 notes is more inconvenient than paying same with Rs 1000 notes ?

Me: Yes, you are right. Rs 1000 notes make it more convenient to pay Rs 15,000 than Rs 50 notes do. But then, throwing garbage on the road is more convenient than searching for dust-bin, crossing a road by jumping over a road-divider is more convenient than crossing road through a zebra-crossing, bribing Rs 20 to a police constable is more convenient than paying a fine of Rs 200. The major reason for corruption today is that people become blind to long-term problems for the sake of short-term convenience. Using traceable money is a good habit, just as not spitting on road is a good habit. The job of the government is to promote good habits and give people minimum chance of indulging in bad habits. Moreover, why do you wish to pay Rs 15,000 using cash, pay it using a check! Check is much more convenient for transacting in the scale of thousands than is cash. Just because the limit set by government is Rs 20,000, it does not mean that all the transactions less than that amount should be made in cash. I do not even remember the last time I made a transaction of more than Rs 1000 in cash. I have pledged to use traceable money as much as I can. When the government can promote the use of harmful chemical fertilizers so much that 99% poor farmers today are dependent on wealthy capitalist MNCs for their agricultural inputs, then why can’t the government promote the use of traceable money so much that 99% people willingly use traceable money ??

You: You are right! Thanks mann! You have opened my eyes. I will use traceable money from now on as much as I can.

Me: Do not thank me. You should thank Baba Ramdev who is doing a great job of creating awareness among people. Something that the government should have done long ago is today being done by a rishi.

You: Hmm. You are right. By the way, I need to go now. Talk to you later. Bye.

Me: Bye🙂

Do not get fooled by the face of Mahatma Gandhi on these notes. They represent evil intentions, not ahinsa. The only reason that these notes are printed is to promote corruption, crime and loot. Hundreds of scams since independence from 2G to Bofors would not have been possible, had these notes not existed. And if the scams were not possible, then how would the politicians and wealthy capitalists loot common people and store the loot in their American and European bank accounts ??

The conspiracy of high denomination notes runs much deeper than what we have discussed so far. In this short video, Baba Ramdev explains that conspiracy and deduces an estimate of India’s Black GDP. The crux of what Baba Ramdev is trying to say in this video is that Indian government has printed excess currency notes than what is required to sustain India’s official (white) GDP. That means India’s money supply must contain an excess of currency notes when compared to other countries. I tried verifying this fact and I did not need to go far away. This data is available on Wikipedia.

Percentage of currency notes in European Union’s money supply

Percentage of currency notes in Australia’s money supply

Percentage of currency notes in New Zealand’s money supply

Percentage of currency notes in India’s money supply

The above data tells that India has a huge excess of currency. Moreover, according to Baba Ramdev, 90% of that currency is in the form of high denomination notes as per the information obtained through RTI. A nation where poverty line lies at Rs 26 for rural areas and Rs 32 for urban areas has 90% currency in the form of Rs 100, Rs 500 and Rs 1000! And this conspiracy is continuing since 1935 when the British created RBI. At that time, the highest denomination note was of Rs 10,000!

The so-called Baba Ramdev is not a baba. He is a rishi. He does not wear shoes or rubber slippers, but pAdukA (see behind him) that our ancient rishis like garga, bharadwaj and heros like Krishna and Chanakya used to wear! Not only that, he can also speak the language of the rishis viz. Sanskrit with native fluency. Above all, he neither talks superstition nor spews religious hatred, but talks logically only what is good for the world.

Last year, when Baba Ramdev was fasting with a demand for banning Rs500 and Rs1000 notes, all the big media houses from TV Today network (Aaj Tak, Headlines Today, India Today etc) to CNN IBN, NDTV 24×7, who claim to the upholders of democratic debate and unbiased opinion, were criticizing Baba Ramdev by calling him impractical, extremist, childish and illiterate. The free media  who always opposes any law regulating it, on the grounds of ‘freedom of speech’, was debating on perceived personal characteristics of Baba Ramdev instead of debating on the pros and cons of banning high denomination notes. For the  media, the freedom of speech means hiding real issues and promoting non-issues like Rihanna goes topless in sexy Hawaii holiday pics or Rakhi Sawant says Baba Ramdev is hot and sexy. The Indian media houses are great hypocrites and I will try to explain in the next article about probable reasons as to why the media always tries to defame Baba Ramdev and generate negative prejudice in common people against him.

On the other hand, our honest economist Dr. Manmohan Singh (studied from Cambridge and Oxford) and the clever lawyer Kapil Sibbal (studied from Harvard) were calling this demand of Baba Ramdev impractical. And they were right, else how could they practically loot common people by keeping them unaware ? Had the media and politicians let the common people know the ill-effects of currency and had more people supported Baba Ramdev, a huge populist blow would have eroded the chances of future loot. Preventing loot by politicians and capitalists is obviously impractical. And people making such impractical demands deserve some beating so that they do not make such impractical demands in future. Isn’t it ?

To conclude the article, paper currency was invented to loot common people and today high denomination currency is printed solely for the purpose of looting. High denomination currency is not required and we must take immediate steps to move towards a currency-free economy.

Here is a video in which a thinker of Bharat Swabhiman Trust of Baba Ramdev explains this topic of Black money in great detail. This video can form a good starting point for those who want to do further research on this topic.

In the next article, we shall see how eradicating Indian Black economy has the potential to trigger a chain of events ultimately leading to the economic downfall of Europe and US and the economic rise of South Asia and Africa.

================================================================

Here I am making a collection of news reports showing the ill-effects of currency. I’ll add as and when I find them.

Fake notes, real threat – The Hindu

Posted in Economics, Politics, Ramdev | Tagged , , , , | 3 Comments

The String Theory and the BhagawadGita

Considering its evolution in the past 500 years, Physics’ understanding of the nature of the Universe seems to be heading towards the description of the Universe   as propounded in the BhagawadGita.

In this article, we shall first have a cursory look at the evolution of Physics’ understanding of the Universe and then compare it with the description of the Universe proclaimed emphatically in the BhagawadGita.

The Evolution of Physics – Unification

Classical Physics began in Europe with Galileo and Newton. They believed in three basic premises about the Universe.
1) There is matter which always follows the same laws.
2) There is absolute space which is static and independent of matter and time.
3) There is universal time which is same in all reference frames and is independent of matter  and space.

Then, there was a Newton’s law of Gravitation which was supposed to be valid in all reference frames and independent of space and time. Apart from mechanics we had some people like Snell and Huygens developing Optics – the science of light. We also had people like Coulomb and Gauss developing the theory of Electricity and Gilbert trying to pioneer Magnetism.

By 1800’s, a fascinating subject called Classical Physics had come to the fore which explained diverse phenomena and had diverse theories – different theories for different types of phenomena.

In a nutshell, Universe in the view of Classical Physics contained certain entities like mass, charge, space, time, energy, waves, magnets and light. These interacted with each other in accordance with certain laws. These laws were separate water-tight entities and had no bearing on each other. For example, the law of gravitation applied only to masses and magnets had nothing to do with it, while the charge followed the Coulomb’s law but had nothing to do with Snell’s law of Refraction. But soon, a grand episode was to unfold.

In 1800’s, Maxwell published his work on electricity and magnetism and showed that electric and magnetic forces are not different independent forces, but rather, are different manifestations of the same force – the Electromagnetic force. Thus, the 2  great theories of Classical Physics merged into one and the 2 great forces also merged into one. From now on, magnets and charges were not seen as independent entities but rather, magnets were seen as special types of dynamic arrangements of charges.

This was only the beginning. Soon,  Hertz came up with experiments confirming Maxwell’s theory and also discovered that light is actually a wave of electric and magnetic fields and is produced due to vibrations of charges! Thus, the third great branch of Classical Physics viz. Optics merged into the Theory of Electromagnetism. A single theory which could explain the diverse phenomena pertaining to charges, magnets and light. But the most ground-breaking revelation was still to come.

space time fabric

An artistic view of a Star distorting the space-time fabric - a phenomenon which manifests itself as Gravitation!

A genius called Einstein completely changed our notion about the Universe with his theory of Relativity. Relativity completely shattered the basic assumptions of Classical Physics. The space and the time which were independent entities in Newton’s model of the Universe were now woven into a single entity – the space-time fabric. According to Einstein, not only are the space and time interdependent but also this single space-time fabric is affected by mass(matter) present in it. A mass located in the space-time fabric turns and twists it. It is this turning and twisting of the space-time fabric that appears as the force of gravitation to the mortals like us. Not only that, he further went on claiming that this mass which creates convolutions in the space-time fabric is nothing different from energy! Mass is a condensed form of energy! What Einstein’s theory also implies is that the mass is not conserved and hence the momentum and energy are also not. Possibly, [mass+energy] is conserved. Just as Maxwell had woven charges, magnets and light together, so did Einstein weave mass, space, time and energy into a single theory.

Another blow to classical physics came in early 1900’s, when Heisenberg proposed the uncertainty principle which implies that it is impossible to simultaneously measure the present position while also determining the future motion of a particle! This principle completely shattered the notion of fixed laws of classical physics that were supposed to be valid in all inertial reference frames! Rather than fixed laws predicting a fixed outcome, we now had probabilities of the outcomes. In fact, Einstein was so averse to the ideas of quantum mechanics that once he famously quoted “God doesn’t play dice with the world.” Even the Einstein’s theory of Relativity had no place for uncertainties. Nevertheless, quantum mechanics has since evolved over the years into a new subject.

By Einstein’s time, physicists believed that there are four fundamental independent forces in nature.
1.) Gravitation
2.) Electromagnetism
3.) Weak interaction
4.) Strong interaction

electroweak force

The electrostatic force responsible for raising the hair of this child is the same weak interaction force that is responsible for radioactive decay. This common force is referred to as Electroweak Force.

But the next blow to Physics was about to come.
In late 1900’s, Abdus Salam, Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg formulated the Electroweak Unification theory, which showed that the Electromagnetic force and the Weak Interaction force were different aspects of the same Electroweak force! The Electromagnetic Theory, which itself was a result of merging of the theories of electricity, magnetism and light, was further merged into the ElectroWeak Theory!

All these shocks to the classical conception of a diverse universe have forced the Scientists to speculate the existence of a single theory – The theory of Everything. A theory that would  explain not only the phenomena associated with a BlackHole but also those associated with electrons and protons. A theory that would explain not only the certainties of Relativity but also the uncertainties of Quantum Mechanics. Today, this is a major research area in Theoretical Physics. One such important theory, in its nascent stages of development, that aims to explain everything, is the String Theory, which views everything in the Universe as  composed of tiny strings of energy which give rise to all the phenomena that we observe.

Theory of Everything

Evolution of Physics

We can conclude that the journey of Physics has been that of Unification and shattering of the old norms. Our understanding of the Universe seems to be converging to one law that would explain all the diverse phenomena.

Universe according to BhagawadGita

Krishna Arjun

Krishna explaining Arjuna the secrets of the Universe

How did our ancestors perceive the universe ? Let’s check out the BhagawadGita’s description. BhagawadGita talks about an all-pervading, indestructible entity variously referred to as ब्रह्म,  परमात्मा, अव्यय  and by many other names throughout the text. Though this entity is referred to many times in the text, it is described in detail in chapter 13. Below I present some slokas of this chapter, with their closest translations,  describing the ब्रह्म. These slokas were spoken by Krishna to Arjun.

ज्ञेयं यत् तत् प्रवक्ष्यामि यत् ज्ञात्वा अमृतं अश्नुते।
अनादिमत् परं ब्रह्म न सद् तत् न असत् उच्यते॥ (13|12)
I will explain to you that thing which should be known to you. Having known it you will feel immortal. That thing is ब्रह्म. It has no beginning, it is beyond everything. That ब्रह्म is not even changing nor is it unchanging. (Hence, time does not exist for ब्रह्म since time is meaningful only for those things which either change or do not change!)

बहिः अन्तः च भूतानां अचरं चरं एव च।
सूक्ष्मत्वात् तत् अविज्ञेयं दूरस्थं अन्तिके च तत्॥ (13|15)
That ब्रह्म is outside every object, it is also inside every object, it takes the form of the movable objects and it is the one that becomes immovable objects. And due to its fineness and subtlety, it is impossible to be understood. That ब्रह्म is situated far away from every object and it is also situated near every object.

अविभक्तं च भूतेषु विभक्तं इव च स्थितम्।
भूतभर्तृ च तत् ज्ञेयं ग्रसिष्णु प्रभविष्णु च॥ (13|16)
That ब्रह्म appears to be divided in the form of different objects even though it is indivisible. It should be known that it is the ब्रह्म which is sustaining all the objects and is also responsible for the destruction and creation of all objects.

समं सर्वेषु भूतेषु तिष्ठन्तं परमेश्वरम्।
विनश्यत्सु अविनश्यन्तं यः पश्यति स पश्यति॥ (13|27)
One who sees that  परमात्मा (ब्रह्म) situated in all the objects and not getting destroyed even in the objects that are getting destroyed, actually sees the truth.

यदा भूतपृथग्भावं एकस्थं अनुपश्यति।
ततः एव च विस्तारं ब्रह्म सम्पद्यते तदा॥ (13|31)
When a person converts his notion of different objects into the notion of a single all-pervading entity, it is only then that this all-extensive ब्रह्म becomes visible.

The above slokas talk of an entity which is everywhere, indestructible, which takes the form of different objects and is sustaining the universe. This notion is very similar to the strings of energy that pervade the entire universe as per the String Theory.

Though this all-pervading  ब्रह्म is mentioned at many places in the text, it is not possible to explain them all in one article. For a better understanding, I would recommend reading and contemplating over the BhagawadGita in original Sanskrit without relying upon translations. I end this section of the article with the  sloka 18|20 of the BhagawadGita.

सर्वभूतेषु येन एकं भावं अव्ययं ईक्षते।
अविभक्तं विभक्तेषु तत् ज्ञानं विद्धि सात्त्विकम्॥ (18|20)
Consider that knowledge as genuine which enables a person in seeing a single indestructible, indivisible entity in all the different objects.

Hence, the knowledge of Physics will become genuine when the physicists will figure out  one law/theory/entity that governs the complete universe. However, I doubt if that single theory will ever be discovered through our coarse experiments and hollow skepticism.

Conclusion

So what do we conclude from the above comparison ? Do we conclude that our ancestors had discovered modern physics millennia before the Europeans ? Actually, that conclusion would be misleading because the existence of a single all-pervading entity was not a discovery for our ancestors, rather, it was a basic premise on which they built this eternal civilization. Below I write down what I conclude from the above.

Conclusion 1: Science is not a yardstick to measure the correctness of everything. Something does not become correct or incorrect, just because some theory of science proves or disproves it. As we saw, Science itself keeps on evolving and scientists keep on changing their opinion. If  a contemporary of Newton claimed that the speed of light is always constant, he would be considered superstitious and bluntly wrong by the ignorant skeptics. The same ignorant  skeptics today would consider that person knowledgeable. Science, which gives an unstable picture of the Universe, cannot always be used to hold some premise correct or incorrect. This also demonstrates the weakness of the models created by humans to explain common phenomena.  Afterall, modern science is not the truth, it is only a collection of speculative models aimed at attempting to explain the observations. So, when someone asks “Is relativity correct ?” An ignorant science buff would answer “Obviously, yes!”. But a wise person will answer “It seems to explain the observations, but we do not know if it’s correct!”

Conclusion 2: Religion and Science were not different in ancient India. This can be observed in the fact that AryaBhatt reveres विष्णु (the all-pervading ब्रह्म) in his treatise on Astronomy. For our ancestors, Science was same as Religion was same as Free Thought. The distinction between Science and Religion is a foreign concept which we have blindly ingrained in our culture from the barbaric and selfish European invaders.

Conclusion3: Modern Science and Ancient Indian religion are just the different attempts at describing one truth. As the Vedas proudly proclaim, एकं सद् विप्राः बहुधा वदन्ति। which means..Different wise men tell the same truth in different ways. If someone asks “Is light a wave or a particle ?” A Max Plank would say “Of course, light is made of particles called quanta“. A Fresnel would say “Of course, it’s a wave, that too electromagnetic in nature.” But a wise(vedic) person will say “They are just the different ways  of describing the same light.”

A tribute to the similarity between the religion of our ancestors and modern science is the special affection that many modern physicists had for the BhagawadGita, the Upanishads and the Vedas. I give below some high points of this affection.

“A millennium before Europeans were willing to divest themselves of the Biblical idea that the world was a few thousand years old, the Mayans were thinking of millions and the Hindus billions” – Carl Sagan (This refers to the duration of a day and a night of ब्रह्म as mentioned in the Gita.)

“Access to the Vedas is the greatest privilege this century may claim over all previous centuries” – Robert Oppenheimer (Inventor of Atomic Bomb)

In the next article, we shall dwell further into the structure of the Universe as described in the BhagawadGita.

Posted in Sanskrit Literature | Tagged , , , , | 26 Comments

The efficiency of Sanskrit: Less words more meaning!

In this article, we shall see how Sanskrit increases its efficiency by removing unnecessary, good-for-nothing words from a sentence which the other languages are forced to carry just as a host carries parasites with itself. By the end of this article, you will realize that the language you currently speak contains many redundant words that needlessly lengthen your speech.

Though this analysis may apply to many situations, here we shall analyse only a few of them, by taking examples. Our sample sentences with their translations are given below.

1) Three things must be done before dying.  => त्रीणि कर्तव्यानि प्राङ्मरणात्।
2) A group of boys is playing. => एके बालाः खेलन्ति।
3) Ponds of water are drying. => जलानि शुष्यन्ति।
4) A beautiful woman carries away one’s heart. =>  सुन्दरी मनः मोहयति।

All the above translations have a striking feature in common. The Sanskrit version of each sentence is missing some key word(s) of its English counterpart.

In (1), the Sanskrit version does not contain the word for things.
In (2), the Sanskrit version does not contain the word for group.
In (3), the Sanskrit version does not contain the word for ponds.
In (4), the Sanskrit version does not contain the word for woman.

Let’s now try to understand, why the seemingly indispensable words in the English versions of the sentences are redundant in the Sanskrit counterparts.

Unnecessary noun after a number

Three things must be done before dying.  => त्रीणि कर्तव्यानि प्राङ्मरणात्।

Consider the above sentence. Why don’t we have a word for things in the Sanskrit version ? Specifically, why is the Sanskrit translation not त्रीणि वस्तूनि कर्तव्यानि प्राङ्मरणात्।
Is the translation containing the word वस्तूनि (which means things) wrong ? Actually not.
Well, both the translations are correct. But the word वस्तूनि is redundant and does not add any new meaning to the sentence. This is because त्रीणि itself means Three objects or Three things. Unlike in English (or Hindi), where three represents merely a number, in Sanskrit, त्रि represents a number while त्रीणि, which is the first vibhakti of त्रि, represents not the number three, but three objects. There is nothing alien about this. Afterall, the very purpose of a vibhakti is to convert a word representing a property (here, that property is the property of being three in number) to a word representing an object(s) (three objects in this case).

In fact, this observation can be extended to many cases where a noun follows a number. In such cases, the noun usually becomes redundant!

As another example, त्रीणि पर्यटनीयानि प्राङ्मरणात्। would mean…
Three places should be visited before dying.

Again, the Sanskrit version does not contain the word for places!

Unnecessary words for depicting a collection of objects

A group of boys is playing. => एके बालाः खेलन्ति।

many boys but one unit

eke bAlAH – Many boys but one unit.

Consider the above sentence. Why don’t we have a word for group in the Sanskrit version ? Specifically, why is the Sanskrit translation not एकः बालानाम् समूहः खेलति।
Is the translation containing the word  समूहः (which means group) wrong ? Actually not. Well, both the translations are correct. But the word समूहः is redundant and does not add any new meaning to the sentence. Why so ? Let’s see.

एकः बालः means one boy.
Here, both एक (one) and बाल (boy) are in their singular first vibhakti forms. Hence, एकः बालः represents a single boy.

बहवः बालाः means many boys.
Here, both  बहु (many) and बाल (boy) are in their plural first vibhakti forms. Hence, बहवः बालाः represents many boys.

Now consider..
एके बालाः which means a group of boys.
Here, बाल (boy) is in its plural first vibhakti form and  एक (one) is also in its plural first vibhakti form.
How can एक, which means one, exist in a plural form ? Again vibhakti comes to the rescue. Recall that, एक represents the property of being one. But एके, which is the plural first vibhakti form of एक, represents objects which are many (plural) and still have the property of being one. The objects are many, still they are considered one i.e. एके represents one group of many objects! Since, बालाः (boys) and एके (one group of many objects) have the same vibhakti viz. first vibhakti, they represent the same objects viz. a group of boys!

Hence, एके बालाः खेलन्ति। means A group of boys is playing.

This kind of application of vibhaktis can be extended to many cases where words representing a collection of objects become redundant!

One such application occurs in BhagawadGita (18|3).
त्याज्यं दोषवद् इति एके कर्म प्राहुः मनीषिणः। which means…
One class of thinkers says “Actions must be abandoned just as defects are abondoned”. Here again the Sanskrit version has no word for class!

I remember, my school textbook of Sanskrit said that only the singular vibhaktis of the word एक exist since it means one. But the sloka 18|3 of BhagawadGita refutes this claim by using the plural vibhakti form. This also sheds some light on the quality of school books that the students have available to study the language. The school course of Sanskrit seems to intentionally hide the charms of the language and let the Indians remain unaware of the intellectual capacities of their ancestors. Even those who are genuinely interested in learning the language seem to lose interest after they are forced to memorize the vibhakti tables. Its sad that the British achieved their aim by degrading our education system and making us aloof from our language (and even our nation).

Unnecessary words for depicting samples of uncountable things

Ponds of water are drying. => जलानि शुष्यन्ति।

jalAni

jalAni – ponds of water

Consider the above sentence. Why don’t we have a word for ponds in the Sanskrit version ? Specifically, why is the Sanskrit translation not जलस्य सरांसि शुष्यन्ति। Is the translation containing the word सरांसि (which means ponds) wrong ? Actually not.Well, both the translations are correct. But the word सरांसि is redundant and does not add any new meaning to the sentence. Let’s see why ?

जलस्य सरांसि means ponds of water.

जलानि, which is the plural first vibhakti form of जल, means samples/collections/ponds of water. How can water, which is uncountable, be plural ?

Again vibhaktis come to the rescue. जल means (the property of) being water.
जलम् , which is the singular first vibhakti of जल, means an object having the property of being water i.e. a collection/pond of water.

जलानि , which is the plural first vibhakti of जल, means objects (plural) having the property of being water i.e. collections/ponds of water.

Hence, जलानि शुष्यन्ति। means Ponds of water are drying.

This can be extended to other situations where masses of uncountable things are being spoken about. In such cases, the word for the mass of the uncountable thing becomes redundant!

Unnecessary nouns after adjectives

A beautiful woman carries away one’s heart. =>  सुन्दरी मनः मोहयति।

Consider the above sentence. Why don’t we have a word for woman in the Sanskrit version ? Specifically, why is the Sanskrit translation not सुन्दरी नारी मनः मोहयति।
Is the translation containing the word नारी (which means woman) wrong ? Actually not.
Well, both the translations are correct. But the word नारी is redundant and does not add any new meaning to the sentence. Let’s see why ?

The answer is similar to the previous answers. सुन्दर means (the property of) being beautiful.

सुन्दरः , which is the masculine first vibhakti of सुन्दर, represents a male object (a man) having the property of being beautiful. So सुन्दरः would mean a handsome man.

सुन्दरी , which is the feminine first vibhakti of सुन्दर, represents a female object (a woman) having the property of being beautiful. So सुन्दरी means a beautiful woman.

Hence, सुन्दरी मनः मोहयति। translates to A beautiful woman carries away one’s heart.

This kind of application can be extended to all the cases where a man / woman / male animal / female animal having certain quality is being described. In such cases, the gender-representing words like man, boy, lady etc become redundant.

These were just four examples. In your study of Sanskrit literature, you will find many such patterns which eliminate important looking redundant words. This is also one of the reasons that newbies in Sanskrit have difficulties in translating it because they find the sentences to be incomplete due to missing words, though the sentences are actually complete. The reason that they appear incomplete is that the reader has not fully grasped the concept of vibhaktis.

Also, when you speak in your native tongue the next time, try to figure out which words are really needed and which ones are useless.

That’s it for now. Bye.

Posted in Sanskrit | Tagged , , , , , | 13 Comments

The flexibility of Sanskrit

Just as you change your worn-out clothes, so do you change your worn-out body. Afterall, the body is just a set of non-living chemicals and you are beyond them. This conjecture forms the foundations of Indian Philosophy. And above all, this belief is not unscientific. In fact, though unprovable, it is consistent with Observation/Science. 

Did you know, Sanskrit is a highly word-order free language ? What does this mean ? It means that you can take a Sanskrit sentence, jumble its words the way you wish and there is good probability that the resulting sentence would still mean the same as the original one. Don’t believe ? Here is an illustration. All the sentences given below mean exactly the same.

वासांसि जीर्णानि विहाय नवानि गृह्णाति नरः अपराणि ॥
विहाय जीर्णानि वासांसि नवानि गृह्णाति नरः अपराणि ॥
नरः विहाय वासांसि जीर्णानि गृह्णाति अपराणि नवानि ॥
विहाय वासांसि जीर्णानि नरः नवानि अपराणि गृह्णाति
गृह्णाति नवानि अपराणि नरः विहाय वासांसि जीर्णानि ॥
जीर्णानि विहाय वासांसि गृह्णाति अपराणि नरः नवानि
and so on…till thousands of permutations are exhausted!

The above sentence(s) mean(s) “A man abandons worn-out clothes to wear other new ones.

Try to change the position of even a single word in the English version and you will see the sentence become meaningless. What feature of Sanskrit makes such tremendous word-jumbling possible ? I bet you know the answer. It is our same old vibhakti!

Let’s understand how such cruel word-jumbling becomes possible through a conversation  between you and me😛

You
So can you shed some light on this jumbling thing and explain how it works ?

Me
Sure. But before I give you the light, I need to explain a very basic concept of linguistics. That concept is Inflection.

You
Ok. Go ahead.

Me
English is a weakly inflected language. This means that given a word in English, it will not have many different forms. Take the word Dog, for example. There are only two forms of it. (1)Dog (2)Dogs. The word Dog has no other forms. Form(1) gives the information that there is one dog, while Form(2) gives the information that there are more than one dog.

S.no Form Information provided
1
dog
one dog
2
dogs
more than one dog

Similarly, consider the word Happy. It has the following forms.

S.no Form Information provided
1
happy
someone is happy
2
happier
someone is less happy than the happier person
3
happiest
everyone is less happy than the happiest person
4
unhappy
someone is not happy
5
happiness
the feeling of being happy
6
unhappiness
the feeling of not being happy

For the word Write, we have

S.no Form Information provided
1
writes
present tense
2
written
something is already written
3
wrote
past tense
4
writable
possible to write
5
writer
someone who writes

The words dog and dogs are called inflections of Dog. The words happy, happier, happiest, unhappy, happiness and unhappiness are inflections of Happy. The words writes, wrote, written, writer and writable are inflections of Write.

An inflection of a word is a different form of that word and is used for enhancing the meaning of the original word.

When we say that English is a weakly inflected language, we mean that, on an average, the words in English have few inflections. That means, English rarely uses different forms of a word, to convey enhanced meanings of that word. Instead, it uses totally new unrelated words to convey the enhanced meanings. For example, to convey “the meat was eaten by a dog“, we are using a totally new unrelated word by’, instead of using a different form of the word ‘Dog’. Similarly, to convey “If I were Newton, I would have discovered the laws of motion“, we are using 2 new unrelated words would’ and ‘have’, instead of using a different form of the word ‘Discover’. This is what makes English a weakly inflected language. Similarly, Hindi and Mandarin are also weakly inflected. Mandarin is even more weakly inflected than English.

In contrast, we have what are called highly inflected languages, such as Arabic or Greek. Highly inflected languages are those which depend heavily on inflections to convey the enhanced meanings of a word. For example, the sentence “the meat was eaten by a dog” written in Sanskrit, would be
मांसं          खादितं         कुक्कुरेण ॥
The meat was eaten by a dog .

In English, to convey the information that dog is the agent by whom the action(of eating) is being performed, we are using a totally new unrelated word by. But in Sanskrit, we are using a different form(inflection) of the word कुक्कुर . Here, कुक्कुरेण is an inflection of the original word कुक्कुर, which conveys the extra information that कुक्कुर is the agent by whom the action is being performed. Similarly, while English used the word was to convey that the meat is already eaten, Sanskrit uses खादितं  – a different form of the word खादन – to convey that the action(खादन) is already performed. The word  खादितं is an inflection of the original word खादन . Even vibhakti is a type of inflection.
Now, having known this, I think you are able to figure out why such intense word jumbling is possible in Sanskrit and not in English. In fact,  मांसं खादितं कुक्कुरेण ॥ can be correctly written as  खादितं कुक्कुरेण मांसं॥ or as कुक्कुरेण मांसं खादितं॥  This can’t be done in English!

You
Intuitively, I am getting a feel of this word-jumbling thing. But can you clear the haze ?

Me
No problems. Let’s try to see what happens when we jumble the words in the English sentence. Consider the word was in the sentence The meat was eaten by a dog. The word was performs 2 functions here.
1) By appearing after the word meat, the word was conveys that it is meat on which the action(of eating) is performed.
2) By appearing before the word eaten, the word was conveys that the action(of eating) has already been performed.
Jumbling the words in English would nullify these functions

In Sanskrit, these 2 functions are performed by the vibhakti (inflections) and not by word-order.
1) Because मांसं & खादितं have the same vibhakti, we know that they apply to the same object. Hence, खादितं applies to मांसं and not कुक्कुरेण, whatever be the order of words in the sentence! So we know that, it is मांसं on which the action is performed.
2) To show that the action(of eating) viz. खादन has already been performed, Sanskrit uses an inflection of खादन viz. खादित. The information that खादन has been performed is ingrained in the inflection खादित, irrespective of the position of खादित in the sentence!

Because each word in a Sanskrit sentence is an inflection of an original word, it represents not only the original word but also some enhanced meanings of it. These enhanced meanings are not conveyed by other unrelated words (as in English), but are embedded in the inflection itself, hence the enhanced meanings remain unchanged irrespective of the word-order!

You
Ok. I get it. Interesting. But what will one get by jumbling the words ? Don’t you think it’s useless.

Me
I don’t think so. Let me show you some benefits of the flexible word-order. From a literary point of view, flexible word-order makes creating poetry, slokas and other forms of literary art easier. No wonder, a large part of Sanskrit literature is thrown in the form of poetry. In fact, mahAbhArata which is the world’s longest poem (1,00,000 slokas!) is actually a story! Writing a long story like mahAbhArata in the form of a poem would have been more difficult in English. Even Aryabhatta has written his mathematical and astronomical theorems in the form of slokas and not prose. maharSi baudhAyana explains what the Europeans call as Pythagoras’s theorem in the form slokas(poetic couplets). Slokas are not only sweet to the ears but also make memorizing their content easier, so that theorems can be recalled and applied without errors!
And above all, this flexible word-order makes Sanskrit easier to be understood by a computer because when a sentence is fed to the computer it need not analyse the order of words while processing the sentence!

You
I think I should donate some time to learning Sanskrit properly, apart from learning some foreign languages. Sanskrit seems to be much more advanced than the impression I got about it from the school course.

Me
You are right. Not only Sanskrit, but most Indian languages, I feel are linguistically and grammatically more advanced than English, contrary to the impression that our British-designed education system gives us. Our education system gives us a biased one-sided view of India (and its languages), resulting in confused and apologetic Indians.

Finally, to end the article, take home what you learnt today. Sanskrit is one of the most highly inflected languages in the world. Possibly, more than any other. The concept of vibhakti (which is a type of inflection) is the single main feature responsible for all the sophistication that Sanskrit possesses. In fact, any language that makes extensive use of vibhaktis is bound to be more robust than the one that does not use it (meaning of robust is given in the next para). Languages like German, Latin, Greek, Arabic (that make comprehensive use of vibhaktis) are more sophisticated than, say, English, Hindi or Mandarin (that don’t).

Baba Ramdev is actually not a baba as the media tries to malign him. He is what I call a maharSi of the modern yuga. Very few know that Baba Ramdev started doing research in Yoga only at a later date. His original field of study is Sanskrit! He is a scholar of the Paninian Grammar which is still not fully understood by modern Linguists.

Vibhakti is, perhaps, the most groundbreaking linguistic discovery ever made. It makes a language short and computer friendlyreduces the need for punctuation, also reduces the need of using unnecessary verbs and, above all, provides the support base for creating new words. It also makes a language word-order free as we have seen in this article. In the view that English is weakly inflected, I reckon the rise in popularity of English in the last 2 centuries (mainly due to British invasions and not because English is inherently advanced) has been a regressive phenomenon for humanity, atleast from a linguistic perspective.

Coming back to the topic, Sanskrit makes use of vibhaktis much more  extravagantly than do Greek, Arabic and others. No wonder, it is highly sophisticated. Below I quote the words of Sir William Jones, a European linguist, about Sanskrit.

The Sanskrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure; more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either.

In the upcoming articles, apart from other aspects, we will also look at the revival opportunities for Sanskrit. The future of Sanskrit seems great, if my (political) calculations carry substance.

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